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Sesarini C.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Argibay P.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Argibay P.,Instituto Universitario | Otano L.,Instituto Universitario

Current prenatal diagnosis of monogeneic and chromosomal diseases, includes invasive procedures which carry a small but significant risk. For many years, analysis of fetal cells in maternal circulation has been studied, however it has failed its clinical use due to the scarcity of these cells and their persistance after delivery. For more than a decade, the presence of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood has been identified. These fetal DNA fragments would derive from the placenta and are not detected after delivery, making them a source of fetal material for carrying out diagnosis techniques using maternal blood. However, the vast majority of cell free DNA in maternal circulation is of maternal origin, with the fetal component contributing from 3% to 6% and rising towards term. Available methodologies do not allow separation of fetal from maternal cell free DNA, so current applications have been focused on the analysis of genes not present in the mother, such as Y chromosome sequences, or RHD gene in RhD-negative women, or paternal or de novo mutations. Also, the detection of cell-free fetal RNA in maternal blood offers the possibility of obtaining information regarding genetic expression profiles of embrionic tissues, and using genes expressed only at the feto-placental unit, controls for the presence of fetal material could be established, regardless of maternal genetic tissue. The present article describes the evidences regarding the passage of fetal nucleic acids to maternal circulation, its current prenatal diagnosis application and possible future perspectives. Source

Trinks J.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Trinks J.,CONICET | Hulaniuk M.L.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Caputo M.,CONICET | And 14 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics Journal

The prevalence of genetic polymorphisms identified as predictors of therapeutic-induced hepatitis C virus (HCV) clearance differs among ethnic groups. However, there is a paucity of information about their prevalence in South American populations, whose genetic background is highly admixed. Hence, single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs12979860, rs1127354 and rs7270101 were characterized in 1350 healthy individuals, and ethnicity was assessed in 259 randomly selected samples. The frequency of rs12979860CC, associated to HCV treatment response, and rs1127354nonCC, related to protection against hemolytic anemia, were significantly higher among individuals with maternal and paternal Non-native American haplogroups (64.5% and 24.2%), intermediate among admixed samples (44.1% and 20.4%) and the lowest for individuals with Native American ancestry (30.4% and 6.5%). This is the first systematic study focused on analyzing HCV predictors of antiviral response and ethnicity in South American populations. The characterization of these variants is critical to evaluate the risk-benefit of antiviral treatment according to the patient ancestry in admixed populations. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved. Source

Bologna A.A.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Barbich M.R.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | D'Agostino D.,Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires | Argibay P.F.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME
Archivos Argentinos de Pediatria

To date, children who suffer from a certain type of illness such as hepatic failure, could benefit with a non conventional functional replacement as an alternative to liver transplantation. Deterioration and death of patients on waiting list encourage the search for alternatives methods within transplantation. Liver cell transplantation has become a potential alternative treatment whose validation as an alternative or as a bridge until the donor appears, will probably contribute to improve the quality of life and survival of the patients. The aim of this review is to describe the state of the art of hepatocyte transplantation in pediatric patients. © 2011 Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría. Source

Sesarini C.V.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Costa L.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Naymark M.,Pediatric Mental Health | Granana N.,Hospital Durand | And 3 more authors.
Autism Research

Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) can be conceptualized as a genetic dysfunction that disrupts development and function of brain circuits mediating social cognition and language. At least some forms of ASD may be associated with high level of excitation in neural circuits, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been implicated in its etiology. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) located within the GABA receptor (GABAR) subunit genes GABRA1, GABRG2, GABRB3, and GABRD were screened. A hundred and thirty-six Argentinean ASD patients and 150 controls were studied, and the contribution of the SNPs in the etiology of ASD was evaluated independently and/or through gene-gene interaction using multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) method. From the 18 SNP studied, 11 were not present in our Argentinean population (patients and controls) and 1 SNP had minor allele frequency <0.1%. For the remaining six SNPs, none provided statistical significant association with ASD when considering allelic or genotypic frequencies. Non-significant association with ASD was found for the haplotype analysis. MDR identified evidence for synergy between markers in GABRB3 (chromosome 15) and GABRD (chromosome 1), suggesting potential gene-gene interaction across chromosomes associated with increased risk for autism (testing balanced accuracy: 0.6081 and cross-validation consistency: 10/10, P<0.001). Considering our Argentinean ASD sample, it can be inferred that GABRB3 would be involved in the etiology of autism through interaction with GABRD. These results support the hypothesis that GABAR subunit genes are involved in autism, most likely via complex gene-gene interactions. Autism Res 2014, 7: 162-166. © 2013 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Pereyra-Bonnet F.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Gimeno M.L.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Argumedo N.R.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | Ielpi M.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental ICBME | And 8 more authors.

The conversion of differentiated cells into insulin-producing cells is a promising approach for the autologous replacement of pancreatic cells in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D). At present, cellular reprogramming strategies encompass ethical problems, epigenetic failure or teratoma formation, which has prompted the development of new approaches. Here, we report a novel technique for the conversion of skin fibroblasts from T1D patients into insulin-expressing clusters using only drug-based induction. Our results demonstrate that skin fibroblasts from diabetic patients have pancreatic differentiation capacities and avoid the necessity of using transgenic strategies, stem cell sources or global demethylation steps. These findings open new possibilities for studying diabetes mechanisms, drug screenings and ultimately autologous transgenicfree regenerative medicine therapies in patients with T1D. © 2014 Pereyra-Bonnet et al. Source

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