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Zocche D.M.,University Institute of the Italian Hospital | Ramirez C.,University Institute of the Italian Hospital | Fontao F.M.,University Institute of the Italian Hospital | Costa L.D.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental | Redal M.A.,University Institute of the Italian Hospital
Frontiers in Genetics

Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most frequent events in oncology. Advances in molecular understanding of the processes of carcinogenesis have shed light on the fundamental mechanisms of tumorigenesis. Currently, knowledge of the molecular basis of its pathogenesis is being used to improve patient care and devise more rational therapeutics. Still, the role played by the mutation patterns of mutated genes in the clinical outcomes that patients on pharmacological treatment receive remains unclear. In this study, we propose to analyze the different clinical outcomes and disease prognosis of patients with stage IV CRC treated with FOLFOX chemotherapy (fluorouracil, leucovorin, oxaliplatin) based on different Kirsten ras (KRAS) mutation patterns. Methods: In this cohort study, 148 patients diagnosed with stage IV CRC and treated with FOLFOX were studied between 2008 and 2013. Mutational status of KRAS was determined. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were measured, and all deaths were verified. Survival analysis was performed using Kaplan-Meier analysis, comparison among groups was analyzed using the log-rank test, and multivariate analysis was conducted using Cox proportional-hazards regression. Results: Among a total of 148 patients, 48 (32%) had mutated KRAS, 77% at codon 12 and 23% at codon 13. The PFS was significantly worse in the mutant KRAS patients in comparison to wild type KRAS patients (p < 0.05). The OS did not show significant differences between the two groups. Multivariate analysis showed KRAS mutation as an independent negative prognostic factor for PFS. Among the various subtypes of KRAS mutation, G12D was significantly associated with a poor prognosis in PFS (p = 0.02). Conclusion: In our population, the KRAS mutation had an adverse impact on the prognosis for stage IV CRC patients treated with the FOLFOX regimen. © 2015 Zocche, Ramirez, Fontao, Costa and Redal. Source

Chamorro J.G.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental
Pharmacogenetics and Genomics

INTRODUCTION: It has been widely reported that the slow acetylator phenotype of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) is associated with the development of antituberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH). The aim of this report was to evaluate the level of agreement and accuracy of two recently recommended markers, the two-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) (C282T and T341C) and tagSNP of NAT2 (rs1495741) genotypes, to predict the seven-SNP-inferred NAT2 phenotype in Bolivian and Argentinian tuberculosis (TB)-patient populations. In addition, we analyzed the association of these markers with ATDH. METHODS: We examined 331 TB patients who had been treated with anti-TB drugs. TagSNP of NAT2 genotyping was determined using PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The seven SNPs of NAT2 were determined using sequencing. Concordance analysis was carried out using Kendall’s tau-b coefficient (w) and the degree of agreement with Cohen’s κ coefficient (κ). Receiver operating characteristic receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained to measure the specificity and sensitivity of the method. A binary logistic regression was performed to identify variables associated with the development of ATDH. RESULTS: Both predictors showed a remarkable concordance (>95.0%) and an almost perfect agreement (κ>0.945; P<0.0001) with the predicted acetylator profile. However, the sensitivity of the tagSNP genotypes to predict the NAT2 acetylator phenotype was lower in the Bolivian population (92.3%) compared with the Argentinian population (100.0%). CONCLUSION: A nearly perfect agreement between both predictors and the predicted acetylation profile was observed with very high levels of sensitivity (>97%) and specificity (>98.0%). Furthermore, and as expected, both the two-SNP (C282T, T341C) and tagSNP were found to be independent variables in predicting ATDH with the same strength as seven-SNP of NAT2. Copyright © 2016 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Guilloux J.-P.,University Paris - Sud | Guilloux J.-P.,Chatham University | Bassi S.,Chatham University | Bassi S.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental | And 7 more authors.

Major depressive disorder (MDD) in general, and anxious-depression in particular, are characterized by poor rates of remission with first-line treatments, contributing to the chronic illness burden suffered by many patients. Prospective research is needed to identify the biomarkers predicting nonremission prior to treatment initiation. We collected blood samples from a discovery cohort of 34 adult MDD patients with co-occurring anxiety and 33 matched, nondepressed controls at baseline and after 12 weeks (of citalopram plus psychotherapy treatment for the depressed cohort). Samples were processed on gene arrays and group differences in gene expression were investigated. Exploratory analyses suggest that at pretreatment baseline, nonremitting patients differ from controls with gene function and transcription factor analyses potentially related to elevated inflammation and immune activation. In a second phase, we applied an unbiased machine learning prediction model and corrected for model-selection bias. Results show that baseline gene expression predicted nonremission with 79.4% corrected accuracy with a 13-gene model. The same gene-only model predicted nonremission after 8 weeks of citalopram treatment with 76% corrected accuracy in an independent validation cohort of 63 MDD patients treated with citalopram at another institution. Together, these results demonstrate the potential, but also the limitations, of baseline peripheral blood-based gene expression to predict nonremission after citalopram treatment. These results not only support their use in future prediction tools but also suggest that increased accuracy may be obtained with the inclusion of additional predictors (eg, genetics and clinical scales). © 2015 American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. Source

Cardozo A.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental | Ielpi M.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental | Gomez D.,National University of Quilmes | Argibay P.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental
Gene Expression

The nervous system (NS) has a limited self-repair capability and adult neurogenesis is limited to certain regions of the brain. This generates a great interest in using stem cells to repair the NS. Previous reports have shown the differentiation of adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in neuron-like cells when cultures are enriched with growth factors participating in embryonic and adult neurogenesis. Therefore, it could be thought that there exists a functional parallelism between neurogenesis and neuronal differentiation of ASCs. For this reason, the goal of this work was to study the differential gene expression of Shh and BMP genetic pathways involved in cell fate determination and proliferation. In this study we demonstrated that hASCs are endowed with active Hedgehog and BMP signaling pathways through the expression of genes of both cascades and that their expressions are downregulated after neuronal induction. This idea is in accordance with the facts that Shh and BMP signaling is involved in the maintenance of cells with stem cells properties and that proliferation decreases during the process of differentiation. Furthermore, Noggin expression was detected in induced hASCs whereas there was no expression in noninduced cells, which indicates that these cells are probably adopting a neuronal fate because noggin diverts neural stem cells from glial to neuronal fate. We also detected FM1-43 and synaptophisin staining, which is evidence of the presence of putative functional presynaptic terminals, a neuron-specific property. These results could partially contribute to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in neuronal differentiation of adult human nonneural tissues. Copyright © 2010 Cognizant Comm. Corp. Source

Pellegrini M.L.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental | Argibay P.,Institute Ciencias Basicas y Medicina Experimental | Gomez D.E.,National University of Quilmes
Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine

Genetic influences, together with epigenetic components and dietary factors, play a fundamental role in the initiation and progression of cancer by causing a number of deregulations. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease influenced by dietary factors, for which established genetic and epigenetic alterations have been identified. Within CRC, there are hereditary syndromes that present mutations in the germ-line hMLH1, and also alterations in the methylation of the promoters. Epigenetics has also been established as a pathway of carcinogenesis. In the present review, we analyzed studies conducted to discern the different pathways leading to established CRC, stressing the importance of identifying factors that may predict CRC at an early stage, since it is mostly a silent disease observed at the clinical level in advanced stages. Source

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