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Maza N.L.,Institute Ciencias Astronomicas Of La Tierra Y Del Espacio Icate | Nieva M.-F.,Friedrich - Alexander - University, Erlangen - Nuremberg | Nieva M.-F.,University of Innsbruck | Przybilla N.,University of Innsbruck
Astronomy and Astrophysics | Year: 2014

Aims. We present a pilot study on non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (NLTE) line-formation computations for the isotopes 3He and 4He in the mercury-manganese star κ Cancri. The impact of NLTE effects on the determination of isotopic abundances and the vertical stratification of helium in the atmosphere is investigated. Methods. Modern NLTE line-formation computations were employed to analyse a high-resolution and high signal-to-noise ratio ESO-VLT/UVES spectrum of κ? Cnc. The atmospheric parameters were determined from fitting the hydrogen Balmer lines and the spectral energy distribution. Multiple He? i lines were investigated, including He? i λ4921 Å and λ6678 Å, which show the widest isotopic splits. Results. Half of the observed He? i lines in the spectrum of κ? Cnc show significant NLTE strengthening, the effects are strongest in the red lines He? iλ5875 Å and He? iλ6678 Å. NLTE abundances from individual He? i lines are up to a factor of ∼3 lower than LTE values. Helium is found to be stratified in the atmosphere of κ? Cnc. While the LTE analysis indicates a step-like profile of the helium abundance, a gradual decrease with height is indicated by the NLTE analysis. A 3He/4He ratio of ∼0.25-0.30 is found. With the available data it cannot be decided whether the two isotopes follow the same stratification profile, or not. Conclusions. This work implies that NLTE effects may be ubiquitous in the atmospheres of HgMn stars and may have a significant impact on abundance determinations and the interpretation of the vertical abundance stratification of elements. © ESO, 2014.


Assef R.J.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Stern D.,Jet Propulsion Laboratory | Kochanek C.S.,Ohio State University | Blain A.W.,University of Leicester | And 13 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal | Year: 2013

Stern et al. presented a study of Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) selection of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the 2 deg2 COSMOS field, finding that a simple criterion W1-W2 ≥ 0.8 provides a highly reliable and complete AGN sample for W2 < 15.05, where the W1 and W2 passbands are centered at 3.4 μm and 4.6 μm, respectively. Here we extend this study using the larger 9 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field which also has considerably deeper WISE observations than the COSMOS field, and find that this simple color cut significantly loses reliability at fainter fluxes. We define a modified selection criterion combining the W1-W2 color and the W2 magnitude to provide highly reliable or highly complete AGN samples for fainter WISE sources. In particular, we define a color-magnitude cut that finds 130 ± 4 deg-2 AGN candidates for W2 < 17.11 with 90% reliability. Using the extensive UV through mid-IR broadband photometry available in this field, we study the spectral energy distributions of WISE AGN candidates. We find that, as expected, the WISE AGN selection can identify highly obscured AGNs, but that it is biased toward objects where the AGN dominates the bolometric luminosity output. We study the distribution of reddening in the AGN sample and discuss a formalism to account for sample incompleteness based on the step-wise maximum-likelihood method of Efstathiou et al. The resulting dust obscuration distributions depend strongly on AGN luminosity, consistent with the trend expected for a receding torus. At L AGN ∼ 3 × 1044 erg s-1, 29% ± 7% of AGNs are observed as Type 1, while at ∼4 × 1045 erg s-1 the fraction is 64% ± 13%. The distribution of obscuration values suggests that dust in the torus is present as both a diffuse medium and in optically thick clouds. © 2013. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.


Kurat G.,University of Vienna | Varela M.E.,Institute Ciencias Astronomicas Of La Tierra Y Del Espacio Icate | Zinner E.,Washington University in St. Louis | Brandstatter F.,Mineralogisch Petrographische Abteilung
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2010

Tucson is an enigmatic ataxitic iron meteorite, an assemblage of reduced silicates embedded in Fe-Ni metal with dissolved Si and Cr. Both, silicates and metal, contain a record of formation at high temperature (~1800 K) and fast cooling. The latter resulted in the preservation of abundant glasses, Al-rich pyroxenes, brezinaite, and fine-grained metal. Our chemical and petrographic studies of all phases (minerals and glasses) indicate that they have a nebular rather than an igneous origin and give support to a chondritic connection as suggested by Prinz et al. (1987). All silicate phases in Tucson apparently grew from a liquid that had refractory trace elements at approximately 6-20 × CI abundances with nonfractionated (solar) pattern, except for Sc, which was depleted (~1 × CI). Metal seems to have precipitated before and throughout silicate aggregate formation, allowing preservation of all evolutionary steps of the silicates by separating them from the environment. In contrast to most chondrites, Tucson documents coprecipitation of metal and silicates from the solar nebula gas and precipitation of metal before silicates-in accordance with theoretical condensation calculations for high-pressure solar nebula gas. We suggest that Tucson is the most metal-rich and volatile-element-poor member of the CR chondrite clan. © The Meteoritical Society, 2011.


Varela M.E.,Institute Ciencias Astronomicas Of La Tierra Y Del Espacio Icate | Zinner E.,Washington University in St. Louis | Kurat G.,University of Vienna | Chu H.-T.,Central Geological Survey | Hoppe P.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2012

Although considerable progress has been made in unraveling the origin(s) of fayalitic olivines in dark inclusions (DIs), many questions remain still unresolved and/or controversial. We combine a chemical and petrographic study of the Allende dark inclusion 4884-2B (AMNH, New York) and ATEM studies of a fragment of the dark inclusion Allende AF (NHM, Vienna) and discuss an alternative way in which fayalitic olivines could have formed. Allende dark inclusion 4884-2B contains a few aggregates with variable proportions of transparent and feathery olivine. Two such objects (aggregates A and B) are the focus of this study as they preserve glasses that can help in deciphering the nature of the processes involved during olivine growth and subsequent olivine transformation. The petrographic and chemical characteristics of aggregates A and B indicate that the forsteritic stack olivines may be pseudomorphs of clear olivine crystals. The ATEM studies in All-AF suggest that fayalitic olivines may be the result of secondary processes (e.g., metasomatic exchange reactions) operating in the solar nebula. Transformation may have occurred through the mediation of a dry gas phase involving nonvolatile major elements, such as Mg and Fe (e.g., Dohmen et al. 1998). This mechanism could reveal olivine growth patterns (e.g., stacked platelets due to a rapid growth regime) and may have contributed to the development of their fibrous aspect while preserving the shape (i.e., volume) of the crystals. This highly selective process did completely or partially transform ferromagnesian minerals, but affected the fine-grained mesostasis only slightly. © The Meteoritical Society, 2012.


Varela M.E.,Institute Ciencias Astronomicas Of La Tierra Y Del Espacio Icate | Sylvester P.,Memorial University of Newfoundland | Sylvester P.,Texas Tech University | Brandstatter F.,Mineralogisch Petrographische Abteilung | Engler A.,University of Graz
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2015

Sixteen nonporphyritic chondrules and chondrule fragments were studied in polished thin and thick sections in two enstatite chondrites (ECs): twelve objects from unequilibrated EH3 Sahara 97158 and four objects from equilibrated EH4 Indarch. Bulk major element analyses, obtained with electron microprobe analysis (EMPA) and analytical scanning electron microscopy (ASEM), as well as bulk lithophile trace element analyses, determined by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), show that volatile components (K2O + Na2O versus Al2O3) scatter roughly around the CI line, indicating equilibration with the chondritic reservoir. All lithophile trace element abundances in the chondrules from Sahara 97158 and Indarch are within the range of previous analyses of nonporphyritic chondrules in unequilibrated ordinary chondrites (UOCs). The unfractionated (solar-like) Yb/Ce ratio of the studied objects and the mostly unfractionated refractory lithophile trace element (RLTE) abundance patterns indicate an origin by direct condensation. However, the objects possess subchondritic CaO/Al2O3 ratios; superchondritic (Sahara 97158) and subchondritic (Indarch) Yb/Sc ratios; and chondritic-normalized deficits in Nb, Ti, V, and Mn relative to RLTEs. This suggests a unique nebular process for the origin of these ECs, involving elemental fractionation of the solar gas by the removal of oldhamite, niningerite, and/or another phase prior to chondrule condensation. A layered chondrule in Sahara 97158 is strongly depleted in Nb in the core compared to the rim, suggesting that the solar gas was heterogeneous on the time scales of chondrule formation. Late stage metasomatic events produced the compositional diversity of the studied objects by addition of moderately volatile and volatile elements. In the equilibrated Indarch chondrules, this late process has been further disturbed, possibly by a postaccretional process (diffusion?) that preferentially mobilized Rb with respect to Cs in the studied objects. © The Meteoritical Society, 2015.


Hubrig S.,Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam | Kholtygin A.F.,Saint Petersburg State University | Scholler M.,European Southern Observatory | Anderson R.I.,University of Geneva | And 6 more authors.
Astronomische Nachrichten | Year: 2015

Our recent search for the presence of a magnetic field in the bright early A-type supergiant HD 92207 using FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode revealed the presence of a longitudinal magnetic field of the order of a few hundred Gauss. However, the definite confirmation of the magnetic nature of this object remained pending due to the detection of shortterm spectral variability probably affecting the position of line profiles in left- and right-hand polarized spectra. We present new magnetic field measurements of HD 92207 obtained on three different epochs in 2013 and 2014 using FORS 2 in spectropolarimetric mode. A 3σ detection of the mean longitudinal magnetic field using the entire spectrum, 〈Bz〉all = 104 ± 34 G, was achieved in observations obtained in 2014 January. At this epoch, the position of the spectral lines appeared stable. Our analysis of spectral line shapes recorded in opposite circularly polarized light, i.e. in light with opposite sense of rotation, reveals that line profiles in the light polarized in a certain direction appear slightly split. The mechanism causing such a behaviour in the circularly polarized light is currently unknown. Trying to settle the issue of short-term variability, we searched for changes in the spectral line profiles on a time scale of 8-10 min using HARPS polarimetric spectra and on a time scale of 3-4 min using time series obtained with the CORALIE spectrograph. No significant variability was detected on these time scales during the epochs studied. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Varela M.E.,Institute Ciencias Astronomicas Of La Tierra Y Del Espacio Icate | Zinner E.,Washington University in St. Louis
Meteoritics and Planetary Science | Year: 2015

Glass-bearing inclusions hosted by different mineral phases in SNC meteorites provide important information on the conditions that prevailed during formation of early phases and/or on the composition of the primary trapped liquids/melts of these rocks. Although extensive previous work has been reported on such inclusions, several questions are still unresolved. We performed a chemical and petrographic study of the constituents (glasses and mineral assemblage) of glassy and multiphase inclusions in Shergotty and Chassigny. We focused on obtaining accurate trace element contents of glasses and co-existing minerals and discussing their highly variable REE contents. Our results reveal an unusual geochemistry of trace element contents that appear to be independent of their major element compositions. Chemical equilibrium between phases inside inclusions as well as between glasses and host minerals could not be established. The LREE contents of glasses in glass inclusions can vary by up to two orders of magnitude. The depletion in trace element abundances shown by glasses seem to be inconsistent with these phases being residual melts. The light lithophile element contents of glasses are highly variable with enrichment in incompatible elements (e.g., Be, Sr, Ba, and LREE) indicating some processes involving percolation of fluids. All of these features are incompatible with glass-bearing inclusions in the host minerals acting as closed systems preserving unmodified primary liquids/melts. Glass-bearing inclusions in Shergotty and Chassigny appear to have been altered (as was the rock itself) by different postformational processes (e.g., shock, metamorphism, metasomatic [?] fluids) that affected these meteorites with different degree of intensity. Our results indicate that these inclusions could not preserve a reliable sample of the primary trapped melt. © 2015 The Meteoritical Society.

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