Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS

Buenos Aires, Argentina

Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS

Buenos Aires, Argentina
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Aronzon C.M.,Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS | Aronzon C.M.,CONICET | Sandoval M.T.,Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS | Sandoval M.T.,Northeast National University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2011

The acute and short term chronic toxicity of both the herbicide butyl ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and a commercial formulation (CF) were evaluated on Rhinella (= Bufo) arenarum embryos at different developmental stages. Adverse effects were analyzed by means of the isotoxicity curves for lethality, malformations, stage-dependent susceptibility, and ultrastructural features. For all experimental conditions, the CF was more toxic, up to 10 times, than the active ingredient, being the open mouth stage (S.21) the most susceptible to the herbicide. For continuous treatment conditions, the early embryonic development was the most susceptible to 2,4-D and the LC50s for 96 and 168 h were 9.06 and 7.76 mg L-1 respectively. In addition, both the active ingredient and the CF were highly teratogenic, resulting in reduced body size, delayed development, microcephaly, agenesis of gills, and abnormal cellular proliferation processes as the main adverse effects. According to US EPA, 2,4-D in agricultural scenarios may be up to three times higher than the NOEC values for teratogenic effects reported in this study. Therefore, they might represent a risk for amphibians. This study also points out the relevance of reporting the susceptibility of embryos at different developmental stages to both the active ingredient and the CF of agrochemicals in order to protect nontarget organisms. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Wolkowicz I.R.H.,Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS | Herkovits J.,Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS | Perez Coll C.S.,National University of San Martín of Argentina
Environmental Toxicology | Year: 2014

The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L-1, in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L-1 BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L-1 onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Aronzon C.M.,Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS | Sandoval M.T.,Northeast National University | Herkovits J.,Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS | Perezcoll C.S.,National University of San Martín of Argentina
Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry | Year: 2011

Copper toxicity in different embryonic and larval stages of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum was evaluated by means of continuous and 24-h pulse treatments in 12 different developmental stages. Lethal concentrations (LC) of 10, 50, and 90% of continuous treatment with Cu from early blastula (S.4), complete operculum (S.25), and hind limb bud (S.28) stages were plotted from 24 to 168h, resulting from S.4 in a 24-h LC50 of 137μg Cu 2+/L and a 168-h LC50 of 19.5μg Cu 2+/L. This result was in agreement with pulse treatments that showed a high resistance to Cu at blastula and gastrula stages, whereas the organogenic period, between muscular response (S.18) and open mouth (S.21), was very susceptible to this metal. Continuous treatments from S.25 showed no significant differences along exposure time (168-h LC50=51μg Cu 2+/L), but in the case of S.28 toxicity increased slightly from a 24-h LC50 of 138.6μg Cu 2+/L to a 168-h LC50 of 104μg Cu 2+/L, pointing out that, although the larval period was significantly more resistant to Cu, there was also a remarkable stage-dependent susceptibility to this metal. Copper teratogenic potential was approximately two, and main adverse effects were reduced body size, axial flexure, microcephaly, acephaly, mouth malformations, agenesis of or underdeveloped gills, agenesis of or underdeveloped tail, and hydropsy. The results are discussed considering Cu toxicity mechanisms, an evolutionary perspective, and environmental protection. © 2011 SETAC.


PubMed | Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology and chemistry | Year: 2011

Copper toxicity in different embryonic and larval stages of the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum was evaluated by means of continuous and 24-h pulse treatments in 12 different developmental stages. Lethal concentrations (LC) of 10, 50, and 90% of continuous treatment with Cu from early blastula (S.4), complete operculum (S.25), and hind limb bud (S.28) stages were plotted from 24 to 168 h, resulting from S.4 in a 24-h LC50 of 137 g Cu(2+) /L and a 168-h LC50 of 19.5 g Cu(2+) /L. This result was in agreement with pulse treatments that showed a high resistance to Cu at blastula and gastrula stages, whereas the organogenic period, between muscular response (S.18) and open mouth (S.21), was very susceptible to this metal. Continuous treatments from S.25 showed no significant differences along exposure time (168-h LC50 = 51 g Cu(2+) /L), but in the case of S.28 toxicity increased slightly from a 24-h LC50 of 138.6 g Cu(2+) /L to a 168-h LC50 of 104 g Cu(2+) /L, pointing out that, although the larval period was significantly more resistant to Cu, there was also a remarkable stage-dependent susceptibility to this metal. Copper teratogenic potential was approximately two, and main adverse effects were reduced body size, axial flexure, microcephaly, acephaly, mouth malformations, agenesis of or underdeveloped gills, agenesis of or underdeveloped tail, and hydropsy. The results are discussed considering Cu toxicity mechanisms, an evolutionary perspective, and environmental protection.


PubMed | Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology | Year: 2011

The acute and short term chronic toxicity of both the herbicide butyl ester of 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and a commercial formulation (CF) were evaluated on Rhinella (= Bufo) arenarum embryos at different developmental stages. Adverse effects were analyzed by means of the isotoxicity curves for lethality, malformations, stage-dependent susceptibility, and ultrastructural features. For all experimental conditions, the CF was more toxic, up to 10 times, than the active ingredient, being the open mouth stage (S.21) the most susceptible to the herbicide. For continuous treatment conditions, the early embryonic development was the most susceptible to 2,4-D and the LC50s for 96 and 168 h were 9.06 and 7.76 mg L(-1) respectively. In addition, both the active ingredient and the CF were highly teratogenic, resulting in reduced body size, delayed development, microcephaly, agenesis of gills, and abnormal cellular proliferation processes as the main adverse effects. According to US EPA, 2,4-D in agricultural scenarios may be up to three times higher than the NOEC values for teratogenic effects reported in this study. Therefore, they might represent a risk for amphibians. This study also points out the relevance of reporting the susceptibility of embryos at different developmental stages to both the active ingredient and the CF of agrochemicals in order to protect nontarget organisms.


PubMed | Institute Ciencias Ambientales y Salud ICAS
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology | Year: 2013

The acute and chronic toxicity of bisphenol A (BPA) was evaluated on the common South American toad Rhinella arenarum embryos and larvae by means of continuous and pulse exposure treatments. Embryos were treated continuously from early blastula (S.4) up to complete operculum (S.25), during early larval stages and by means of 24 h pulse exposures of BPA in concentrations ranging between 1.25 and 40 mg L(-1) , in order to evaluate the susceptibility to this compound in different developmental stages. For lethal effects, S.25 was the most sensitive and gastrula was the most resistant to BPA. The Teratogenic Index for neurula, the most sensitive embryonic stage for sublethal effects was 4.7. The main morphological alterations during early stages were: delayed or arrested development, reduced body size, persistent yolk plug, microcephaly, axial/tail flexures, edemas, blisters, waving fin, underdeveloped gills, mouth malformations, and cellular dissociation. BPA caused a remarkable narcotic effect from gill circulation stage (S.20) onwards in all the organisms exposed after 3 h of treatment with 10 mg L(-1) BPA. After recovering, the embryos exhibited scarce response to stimuli, erratic or circular swimming, and spasmodic contractions from 5 mg L(-1) onwards. Our results highlight the lethal and sublethal effectsof BPA on R. arenarum embryos and larvae, in the last case both at structural and functional levels.

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