Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias

Tulancingo, Mexico

Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias

Tulancingo, Mexico

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Nieto R.,Colegio de Mexico | Nieto R.,Polytechnic University of Francisco I. timber | Sanchez-Torres M.T.,Colegio de Mexico | Figueroa J.L.,Colegio de Mexico | And 5 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2015

The addition of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to the diet of ruminants can benefit the reproductive process in the female. The current study was conducted to assess the effect of a short period of feeding a diet that included fish meal and oil on the progesterone (P4) and insulin (INS) profile, and on reproductive variables including estrous onset, pregnancy and prolificacy in virgin ewes artificially inseminated by laparoscopy (AIL). Forty-two Dorset ewes were assigned into two experimental groups: These groups were no supplementation (CON; n=21) and a group supplemented with fish meal and oil (4 and 0.8%; FMO; n=21). Ewes were fed the experimental diets for 15 days, beginning four days before inserting sponges for estrus synchronization and ending the day the vaginal sponges were removed. Each ewe received 0.8kg d-1 feed in individual pens. Ewes were pre-synchronized with prostaglandin F and later synchronized with chronolone sponges for 11 days. When sponges were removed, the ewes received 200 IU of eCG. The AIL began 48h after sponge removal and estrus detection. The time of estrus onset was different among groups (P<0.05; CON: 35.1±2.1; FMO: 41.0±1.8h). No differences were found in P4 (FMO: 3.8±1.2; CON: 3.5±1.4ngmL-1) or INS concentrations in serum (FMO: 0.12±0.02; CON: 0.13±0.03ngmL-1). Adding fish meal and oil to the diet did not affect pregnancy percentage (FMO: 52%; CON: 55%), but it did affect the prolificacy index (FMO: 1.63; CON: 1.25) (P<0.05). It was concluded that the addition of fish meal and oil to the diet of virgin ewes over a short period time delayed onset of estrus and enhanced prolificacy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V..

Lopez-Velazquez M.M.,Colegio de Mexico | De La Cruz-Colin L.,INIFAP Hidalgo | De La Pena J.A.P.,CENID Fisiologia y Mejoramiento Animal | Torres-Hernandez G.,Colegio de Mexico | And 6 more authors.
Revista Mexicana De Ciencias Pecuarias | Year: 2016

The objective of the study was to evaluate the effects of sire breed (Charollais, Dorset and Texel), utilizing Hampshire ewes, lamb sex and birth type, on carcass traits of the lambs. After weaning (74±8 d), 45 lambs from these crosses were fattened during 63 d, consuming a balanced diet with 14% CP and 2.82 Mcal of ME/kg of DM. Lambs were weighed and slaughtered at 137 d of age; later, measures on slaughter weight and yield of hot and cold carcass, rib eye area, subcutaneous fat, carcass length, leg length, and rump perimeter were taken and the carcass compactness index was calculated. In addition, the carcass regional composition (shoulder, chest-belly, anterior-loin, leg, neck, and rear-loin) was determined. Data were analyzed utilizing a mixed model. Charollais-sired lambs had the highest (P<0.05) rib eye area (20.1±0.5 cm2), while Dorset-sired lambs were superior (P<0.05) in carcass length (66.3±0.9 cm) and leg length (34.8±0.3 cm). Ram lambs surpassed ewe lambs (P<0.05) in most traits analyzed. Lambs born as singles had higher means than twin lambs (P<0.05) in subcutaneous fat and leg length. In general, crosses with Charollais and Dorset showed superiority in carcass traits.

Lopez-Palacios C.,Colegio de Mexico | Pena-Valdivia C.B.,Colegio de Mexico | Rodriguez-Hernandez A.I.,Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias | Reyes-Aguero J.A.,Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas
Plant Foods for Human Nutrition | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43 g 100 g−1 dry matter), tightly bound hemicelluloses were lower (3.32 to 1.81 g 100 g−1 dry matter) and pectins and loosely bound hemicelluloses were not different in wild than in domesticated species. Aqueous solution/suspensions of mucilage, pectins, hemicellulose and cellulose of all species showed non-Newtonian behavior under simple shear flow. The flow behavior of the structural polysaccharides was well described by the Ostwald de-Waele model. Pectins and mucilages exhibited the highest consistency indexes (K values ranged from 0.075 to 0.177 Pasn) with a moderated shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.53 to 0.67). Cellulose dispersions exhibited the most shear-thinning behavior (n values ranged from 0.17 to 0.41) and hemicelluloses showed a tendency to Newtonian flow (n values ranged from 0.82 to 0.97). The rheological flow properties of these polysaccharides may be useful to improve the textural and sensory qualities of some foods and pharmaceutical materials. Moreover, they can emerge as functional ingredients mainly due to the nutraceutical properties that have been attributed to nopalitos. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Chavarria-Hernandez N.,Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias | Ortega-Morales E.,Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias | Vargas-Torres A.,Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias | Chavarria-Hernandez J.-C.,Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias | Rodriguez-Hernandez A.-I.,Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias
Biotechnology and Bioprocess Engineering | Year: 2010

This study is the first to describe the evolution of both hydrodynamic and oxygen transfer conditions during the submerged culture of the entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema carpocapsae CABA01 (an indigenous strain isolated within the State of Hidalgo, Mexico), and its symbiotic bacterium, Xenorhabdus nematophila, using an internal-loop mechanically agitated bioreactor of 4.5 L of liquid volume. Concentrations up to 217,306 viable nematodes per mL, with 94% in infective juvenile (IJ) stage (i.e., 204,444 IJ/mL), were achieved in 16 days of bioprocess. The Reynolds number (Re) was used as an index of the actual hydrodynamic conditions, and it varied within the interval 5,150 < Re (dimensionless) < 9,440, involving apparent culture broth viscosity changes from 3 to 5.4 mPa s during the processing. The aeration efficiency was expressed on the basis of the volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient, kLa, which varied within the range 0.026 to0. 170 s-1. © The Korean Society for Biotechnology and Bioengineering and Springer 2010.

Gayosso-Canales M.,CINVESTAV | Gayosso-Canales M.,Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias | Esparza-Garcia F.J.,CINVESTAV | Bermudez-Cruz R.M.,CINVESTAV | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part A Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering | Year: 2011

A 2m 7-3 fractional factorial experimental design was used to establish 16 culture media, with and without PCBs to enhance the activities of laccase (Lac), manganese peroxidase (MnP), and versatile peroxidase (VP) produced by the white rot fungus Pleurotus ostreatus. The culture was added to 10,000 mg L-1 of transformer oil, containing 71% of the identified Arochlor 1242. The culture conditions were established with eight variables at two values (levels); pH (4 and 6), agitation (100 and 200 rpm), CuSO4 (150 and 250 mg L-1), MnSO4 (50 and 200 mg L -1), Tween 80 (13 and 3500 mg L-1), wheat straw (0 and 2.5 g L-1), sugarcane bagasse (0 and 2.5 g L-1),and Arochlor 1242 (0 and 7100 mg L-1) at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 days old culture. Laccase activity was enhanced at a high value of pH and low value of agitation (P < 0.001) and correlated positively (R2 = 0.9; a = 0.05) with the removal of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). VP activity was enhanced 27-fold with PCBs, Tween 80 and pH. The MnP activity was increased 1.2-fold with PCBs. The fractional factorial experimental design methodology allowed us to determine the P. ostreatus culture media conditions to enhance Lac and VP activities for efficient removal of Arochlor 1242 (one of the most recalcitrant organochloride pollutants). The factors that shown the greatest effect on Lac activity were: pH, agitation and high concentrations of Arochlor 1242. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

PubMed | Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias and University of Central Mexico
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Blackberry processing generates up to 20% of residues composed mainly of peel, seeds and pulp that are abundant in flavonoids. The objective of this study was to optimize the ultrasound conditions, in a closed system, for antioxidants extraction, using the response surface methodology. Blackberry (Rubus fructicosus) residues were analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH. The selected independent variables were ultrasound amplitude (X: 80%-90%) and extraction time (X: 10-15 min), and results were compared with conventional extraction methods. The optimal conditions for antioxidants extraction were 91% amplitude for 15 min. The results for total phenolic content and anthocyanins and antioxidant activity by ABTS and DPPH were of 1201.23 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE)/100 g dry weight basis (dw); 379.12 mg/100 gdw; 6318.98 mol Trolox equivalent (TE)/100 gdw and 9617.22 mol TE/100 gdw, respectively. Compared to solvent extraction methods (water and ethanol), ultrasound achieved higher extraction of all compounds except for anthocyanins. The results obtained demonstrated that ultrasound is an alternative to improve extraction yield of antioxidants from fruit residues such as blackberry.

PubMed | Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Folia microbiologica | Year: 2012

Pleurotus ostreatus degrades polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with an increase of laccase activity. Laccases are well known for their detoxifying activity. We show, using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and a biochemical assay, that reduction in PCBs (di, tri, tetra, and penta) levels are correlated with an increase in laccase activity. P. ostreatus cultures were obtained from 0 to 30 days in the presence or absence of 7,100 mg/L PCBs (from transformer oil) and a surfactant. After each selected time cultures were withdrawn and remaining PCBs were determined, a maximal removal percentage of PCBs was obtained at 20 (63.52.0) and 30 days (63.84.6) post-induction. Also, the activity of the enzyme was analyzed and it was found to increase at 10 (6.9-fold) and 20 (6.77-fold) days post-induction in the presence of PCBs, as determined by its activity. Taken together, these data suggest that PCBs induce laccase expression and that laccase catalyzes PCBs removal.

PubMed | Institute Ciencias Agropecuarias, Colegio de Mexico and Institute Investigacion Of Zonas Deserticas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Plant foods for human nutrition (Dordrecht, Netherlands) | Year: 2016

The aim of this study was to quantify the content of polysaccharides of edible tender cladodes (nopalitos) of three species of Opuntia and to evaluate the rheological flow behavior of isolated polysaccharides. A completely randomized experimental design was used to characterize a wild (O. streptacantha), a semidomesticated (O. megacantha) and a domesticated (O. ficus-indica) species. Mucilage content was higher (4.93 to 12.43g 100g

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