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Ramirez-Bahena M.-H.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Salamanca | Ramirez-Bahena M.-H.,University of Salamanca | Flores-Felix J.D.,University of Salamanca | Cuesta M.J.,CSIC - Institute of Natural Resources and Agriculture Biology of Salamanca | And 9 more authors.
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2015

A bacterial strain designated A4STR04T was isolated from the inner root tissue of potatoes in Spain. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 16S rRNA gene sequence placed the isolate into the genus Fontibacillus, being most closely related to Fontibacillus panacisegetis KCTC 13564T with 99 % identity. The isolate was observed to form Gram-positive, motile and sporulating rods. The catalase test was found to be negative and oxidase positive. Nitrate was found to be reduced to nitrite. β-Galactosidase and caseinase were observed to be produced but the production of gelatinase, urease, arginine dehydrolase, ornithine and lysine decarboxylase was negative. Aesculin hydrolysis was found to be positive and acetoin production was negative. Growth was found to be supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon source. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and the major fatty acid (61.5 %) was identified as anteiso-C15:0, as occurs in the other species of genus Fontibacillus. The strain A4STR04T was found to display a complex lipid profile consisting of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, a glycolipid, two phospholipids, a lipid and two aminophospholipids. Mesodiaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The G+C content was determined to be 50.5 mol% (Tm). Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain A4STR04T (=LMG 28458 T = CECT 8693T) should be classified as representing a novel species of genus Fontibacillus, for which the name Fontibacillus solani sp. nov. is proposed. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland. Source

Amoros-Jimenez R.,University of Alicante | Pineda A.,Wageningen University | Fereres A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA CSIC | Marcos-Garcia M.A.,University of Alicante
BioControl | Year: 2014

Provision of additional floral resources in the crop is a successful strategy of conservation biological control for attracting several natural enemies including predatory syrphids. However, the selection of flower species is mainly based on visiting preferences, paying little attention to the link between preference and performance. In this study, we assess the influence of feeding on flowers of two insectary plants (sweet alyssum and coriander) and flowers of a crop species (sweet pepper) on performance of the parental and first generation of the syrphid Sphaerophoria rueppellii (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Syrphidae). We found that floral preference of the adults was linked to developmental performance of their offspring. Sweet alyssum was the flower most frequently visited by syrphid adults, enhancing adult body size and egg-to adult survival of the F1 generation. © 2014 International Organization for Biological Control (IOBC). Source

Santana P.O.,Research Center Agraria Of Albaladejito | Santana P.O.,Institute Recursos Humanos para la Ciencia y la Tecnologia INCRECYT | Cabrera R.,University of La Laguna | Gimenez C.,University of La Laguna | And 8 more authors.
Grasas y Aceites | Year: 2012

The chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Salvia lavandulifolia Vahl., Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lavandula latifolia Medik., Lavandula angustifolia Mill. and Thymus vulgaris L. are presented. The essential oils have been analysed by Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry and 61 compounds were identified, 23 of which represented more than 1% of the essential oil. The 1,8 cineole (16-23%) appeared as the main compound of Salvia sp. essential oils. The high content of α-thujone was characteristic in S. officinalis oil. Remarkable concentrations of linalool (30-33%), camphor (5-17%) and linalyl acetate (9-28%) were detected in Lavandula sp. oils while carvacrol (21.6%) and p-cimene (23.7%) were the most abundant compounds in T. vulgaris oil. Biological characterization was based on their bioplaguicide activity. The essential oils studied had strong antifeedant effects against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say, Spodoptera littoralis Boisd., Myzus persicae Sulzer and Rhopalosiphum padi L., phytotoxic activity against Lactuca sativa L. and Lolium perenne L. and also exhibited high antifungal activity against Fusarium sp. Oils from T. vulgaris and L. latifolia showed the highest levels of bioactivity against all target species. These results provide an added-value to the essential oils of aromatic plants of agro-industrial interest for its potential use in the development of natural agrochemicals. Source

Anbalagan C.,University of Nottingham | Lafayette I.,University of Nottingham | Antoniou-Kourounioti M.,University of Nottingham | Haque M.,University of Nottingham | And 6 more authors.
Ecotoxicology | Year: 2012

Caenorhabditis elegans strains carrying stressreporter green fluorescent protein transgenes were used to explore patterns of response to metals. Multiple stress pathways were induced at high doses by most metals tested, including members of the heat shock, oxidative stress, metallothionein (mtl) and xenobiotic response gene families. A mathematical model (to be published separately) of the gene regulatory circuit controlling mtl production predicted that chemically similar divalent metals (classic inducers) should show additive effects on mtl gene induction, whereas chemically dissimilar metals should show interference. These predictions were verified experimentally; thus cadmium and mercury showed additive effects, whereas ferric iron (a weak inducer) significantly reduced the effect of mercury. We applied a similar battery of tests to diluted samples of soil pore water extracted centrifugally after mixing 20% w/w ultrapure water with air-dried soil from an abandoned lead/zinc mine in the Murcia region of Spain. In addition, metal contents of both soil and soil pore water were determined by ICP-MS, and simplified mixtures of soluble metal salts were tested at equivalent final concentrations. The effects of extracted soil pore water (after tenfold dilution) were closely mimicked by mixtures of its principal component ions, and even by the single most prevalent contaminant (zinc) alone, though other metals modulated its effects both positively and negatively. In general, mixtures containing similar (divalent) metal ions exhibited mainly additive effects, whereas admixture of dissimilar (e.g. trivalent) ions often resulted in interference, reducing overall levels of stress-gene induction. These findings were also consistent with model predictions. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Gonzalez-Prieto S.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Diaz-Ravina M.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Martin A.,CSIC - National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences | Lopez-Fando C.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA CSIC
Soil and Tillage Research | Year: 2013

Long-term agricultural management may change soil C sequestration and alter soil C and N dynamics. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of several tillage regimes with different intensity on C and N stocks in a Calcic Haploxeralf with a leguminous/cereal rotation under semiarid conditions after 15, 18 and 21 years of management. Seven chemical and biochemical properties (total C, total N, δ 13C, δ 15N, FDA hydrolysis, β-glucosidase and urease activities) were measured in a soil (0-5cm, 5-10cm, 10-20cm, 20-30cm) under the following agricultural management: fallow (F), no-tillage (NT), zone-tillage subsoiling with a paraplow (ZT), conventional tillage with mouldboard plow (CT), minimum tillage with chisel plow after NT (MTN) or CT (MTC). The results showed that soil reached a steady state of organic matter sequestration 15 years after starting the experiment and that C and N stocks varied greatly with agricultural management, particularly in the top 0-10cm, and followed the order: F≈NT≈ZT>MTN≈MTC>CT. Fallow and less intensively cultivated soils (NT, ZT) exhibited strong vertical gradients of most properties analyzed (total C, total N, FDA hydrolysis, urease and β-glucosidase activities) with values decreasing with depth, followed by minimum tillage treatments (MTN, MTC) whereas similar values along soil profile were observed in CT treatment. No significant differences in soil δ 13C values were detected among plots with different land use or tillage systems; however, the δ 15N values suggested that, although tillage system did not affect significantly N-cycling processes, a change from "open" to "closed" N cycling occurred when cultivated soils were set aside. © 2013. Source

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