Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA

Madrid, Spain

Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA

Madrid, Spain
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Antolinez C.A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Moreno A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Appezzato-da-Gloria B.,University of Sao Paulo | Fereres A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2017

The psyllid Bactericera trigonica Hodkinson (Hemiptera: Triozidae) is a carrot and celery pest recently described as a vector of the plant pathogenic bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter solanacearum (Lso) on Apiaceae. Detailed information on vector stylet penetration activities is essential in the study of Lso transmission. In this study we used the electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique, characterized waveforms produced during the various stylet penetration activities in carrot leaves, and correlated them with stylet tracks and salivary sheath termini on plant tissues as well as with Lso inoculation. In addition, the effect of Lso in B. trigonica on the stylet penetration activities was tested. The EPG waveforms identified were: waveforms C1 and C2 detected in the mesophyll, waveforms D, E1, and E2 near or in the phloem sieve elements, and waveform G in the xylem vessels. A waveform pattern not previously reported for psyllids was the ‘pseudo-potential drop’ (pseudo-pd), characterized by sudden voltage dips similar to potential drops. However, the lowered voltage appeared to be inverted when the plant voltage is negative, indicating that it is caused by an increased resistance period and not due to a cell puncture. A direct correlation is shown between the waveform E1 and salivation into phloem sieve elements by B. trigonica as the inoculation of Lso occurred in a period as short as 30 s of E1; Lso transmission occurred in 17 of 35 plants (48%). Stylet activities during waveforms C or D had no consequences on the inoculation of Lso. In conclusion, Lso infection directly affects the probing behaviour of B. trigonica by increasing the total duration of C and D waveforms, but not variables related to phloem salivation (Lso inoculation) or ingestion (Lso acquisition). The reported information here is fundamental for identifying the psyllid vector traits of behaviour associated with transmission of Lso to Apiaceae. © 2017 The Netherlands Entomological Society

Bonani J.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Fereres A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Garzo E.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Miranda M.P.,Fundecitrus | And 2 more authors.
Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata | Year: 2010

Detailed information on probing behavior of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae), is critical for understanding the transmission process of phloem-limited bacteria (Candidatus Liberibacter spp.) associated with citrus 'huanglongbing' by this vector. In this study, we investigated stylet penetration activities of D. citri on seedlings of Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck cv. Pêra (Rutaceae) by using the electrical penetration graph (EPG-DC system) technique. EPG waveforms were described based on amplitude, frequency, voltage level, and electrical origin of the observed traces during stylet penetration into plant tissues. The main waveforms were correlated with histological observations of salivary sheath termini in plant tissues, to determine the putative location of stylet tips. The behavioral activities were also inferred based on waveform similarities in relation to other Sternorrhyncha, particularly aphids and whiteflies. In addition, we correlated the occurrence of specific waveforms with the acquisition of the phloem-limited bacterium Ca. Liberibacter asiaticus by D. citri. The occurrence of a G-like xylem sap ingestion waveform in starved and unstarved psyllids was also compared. By analyzing 8-h EPGs of adult females, five waveforms were described: (C) salivary sheath secretion and other stylet pathway activities; (D) first contact with phloem (distinct from other waveforms reported for Sternorrhyncha); (E1) putative salivation in phloem sieve tubes; (E2) phloem sap ingestion; and (G) probably xylem sap ingestion. Diaphorina citri initiates a probe with stylet pathway through epidermis and parenchyma (C). Interestingly, no potential drops were observed during the stylet pathway phase, as are usually recorded in aphids and other Sternorrhyncha. Once in C, D. citri shows a higher propensity to return to non-probing than to start a phloem or xylem phase. Several probes are usually observed before the phloem phase; waveform D is observed upon phloem contact, always immediately followed by E1. After E1, D. citri either returns to pathway activity (C) or starts phloem sap ingestion, which was the longest activity observed. © 2009 The Netherlands Entomological Society.

Ruiz-Diez B.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Quinones M.A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Fajardo S.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Lopez M.A.,University of Castilla - La Mancha | And 2 more authors.
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2012

A survey of symbiotic bacteria from legumes grown in high mercury-contaminated soils (Almadén, Spain) was performed to produce a collection of rhizobia which could be well adapted to the environmental conditions of this region and be used for restoration practices. Nineteen Hg-tolerant rhizobia were isolated from nodules of 11 legume species (of the genera Medicago, Trifolium, Vicia, Lupinus, Phaseolus, and Retama) and characterized. Based on their growth on Hg-supplemented media, the isolates were classified into three susceptibility groups. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the effective concentrations that produce 50% mortality identified the patterns of mercury tolerance and showed that 15 isolates were tolerant. The dynamics of cell growth during incubation with mercury showed that five isolates were unaffected by exposure to Hg concentrations under the MICs. Genetic analyses of the 16S rRNA gene assigned ten strains to Rhizobium leguminosarum, six to Ensifer medicae, two to Bradyrhizobium canariense, and one to Rhizobium radiobacter. Inoculation of host plants and analysis of the nodC genes revealed that most of them were symbiotically effective. Finally, three isolates were selected for bioremediation processes with restoration purposes on the basis of their levels of Hg tolerance, their response to high concentrations of this heavy metal, and their genetic affiliation and nodulation capacity. © Springer-Verlag 2012.

Campos-Herrera R.,University of Florida | Campos-Herrera R.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | El-Borai F.E.,University of Florida | El-Borai F.E.,Zagazig University | Duncan L.W.,University of Florida
Molecular Ecology Resources | Year: 2012

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful tool to study species of cryptic organisms in complex food webs. This technique was recently developed to detect and quantify several species of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs), which are widely used for biological control of insects, and some natural enemies of EPNs such as nematophagous fungi and the phoretic bacteria Paenibacillus sp. and Paenibacillus nematophilus. A drawback to the use of primers and TaqMan probes designed for Paenibacillus sp. is that the qPCR also amplified Paenibacillus thiaminolyticus and Paenibacillus popilliae, two closely related species that are not phoretically associated with EPNs. Here, we report that the detection of Paenibacillus sp. DNA in nematode samples was two orders of magnitude greater (P<0.001) when the bacterium was added to soil together with its EPN species-specific host Steinernema diaprepesi than when it was added concomitantly with other EPNs or with species of bacterial-feeding nematodes. Just 6% of samples detected trace amounts of P. thiaminolyticus and P. popilliae exposed to the same experimental conditions. Thus, although the molecular assay detects Paenibacillus spp. DNA in nonphoretic associations, the levels are essentially background compared to the detection of Paenibacillus sp. in association with its nematode host. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Carmo-Sousa M.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Moreno A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Garzo E.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Fereres A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA
Virus Research | Year: 2014

Plant viruses are known to modify the behaviour of their insect vectors, both directly and indirectly, generally adapting to each type of virus-vector relationship in a way that enhances transmission efficiency. Here, we report results of three different studies showing how a virus transmitted in a non-persistent (NP) manner (Cucumber mosaic virus; CMV, Cucumovirus) can induce changes in its host plant, cucumber (Cucumis sativus cv. Marumba) that modifies the behaviour of its aphid vector (Aphis gossypii Glover; Hemiptera: Aphididae) in a way that enhances virus transmission and spread non-viruliferous aphids changed their alighting, settling and probing behaviour activities over time when exposed to CMV-infected and mock-inoculated cucumber plants. Aphids exhibited no preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants at short time intervals (1, 10 and 30. min after release), but showed a clear shift in preference to migrate from CMV-infected to mock-inoculated plants 60. min after release. Our free-choice preference assays showed that A. gossypii alates preferred CMV-infected over mock-inoculated plants at an early stage (30. min), but this behaviour was reverted at a later stage and aphids preferred to settle and reproduce on mock-inoculated plants. The electrical penetration graph (EPG) technique revealed a sharp change in aphid probing behaviour over time when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At the beginning (first 15. min) aphid vectors dramatically increased the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures when exposed to CMV-infected plants. At a later stage (second hour of recording) aphids diminished their feeding on CMV-infected plants as indicated by much less time spent in phloem salivation and ingestion (E1 and E2). This particular probing behaviour including an early increase in the number of short superficial probes and intracellular punctures followed by a phloem feeding deterrence is known to enhance the transmission efficiency of viruses transmitted in a NP manner. We conclude that CMV induces specific changes in a plant host that modify the alighting, settling and probing behaviour of its main vector A. gossypii, leading to optimum transmission and spread of the virus. Our findings should be considered when modelling the spread of viruses transmitted in a NP manner. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Rodriguez-Lopez M.J.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Rodriguez-Lopez M.J.,Institute Hortofruticultura Subtropical y Mediterranea La Mayora | Garzo E.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Bonani J.P.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: The whitefly Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) causes dramatic damage to plants by transmitting yield-limiting virus diseases. Previous studies proved that the tomato breeding line ABL 14-8 was resistant to B. tabaci, the vector of tomato yellow leaf curl disease (TYLCD). This resistance is based on the presence of type IV glandular trichomes and acylsucrose production. These trichomes deter settling and probing of B. tabaci in ABL 14-8, which reduces primary and secondary spread of TYLCD. Methodology/Principal Findings: Whitefly settlement preference was evaluated on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of nearly-isogenic tomato lines with and without B. tabaci-resistance traits, 'ABL 14-8 and Moneymaker' respectively, under non-choice and free-choice conditions. In addition, the Electrical Penetration Graph technique was used to study probing and feeding activities of B. tabaci on the adaxial and abaxial leaf surfaces of the same genotypes. B. tabaci preferred to settle on the abaxial than on the adaxial surface of 'Moneymaker' leaves, whereas no such preference was observed on ABL 14-8 tomato plants at the ten-leaf growth stage. Furthermore, B. tabaci preferred to feed on the abaxial than on the adaxial leaf surface of 'Moneymarker' susceptible tomato plants as shown by a higher number of sustained phloem feeding ingestion events and a shorter time to reach the phloem. However, B. tabaci standard probing and feeding behavior patterns were altered in ABL 14-8 plants and whiteflies were unable to feed from the phloem and spent more time in non-probing activities when exposed to the abaxial leaf surface. Conclusions/Significance: The distorted behavior of B. tabaci on ABL 14-8 protects tomato plants from the transmission of phloem-restricted viruses such as Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV), and forces whiteflies to feed on the adaxial side of leaves where they feed less efficiently and become more vulnerable to natural enemies. © 2012 Rodriguez-Lopez et al.

Moreno-Delafuente A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Garzo E.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Moreno A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Fereres A.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Plant viruses can produce direct and plant-mediated indirect effects on their insect vectors, modifying their life cycle, fitness and behavior. Viruses may benefit from such changes leading to enhanced transmission efficiency and spread. In our study, female adults of Bemisia tabaci were subjected to an acquisition access period of 72 h in Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV)-infected and non-infected tomato plants to obtain viruliferous and non-viruliferous whiteflies, respectively. Insects that were exposed to virus-infected plants were checked by PCR to verify their viruliferous status. Results of the Ethovision video tracking bioassays indicated that TYLCV induced an arrestant behavior of B. tabaci, as viruliferous whitefly adults remained motionless for more time and moved slower than non-viruliferous whiteflies after their first contact with eggplant leaf discs. In fact, Electrical Penetration Graphs showed that TYLCV-viruliferous B. tabaci fed more often from phloem sieve elements and made a larger number of phloem contacts (increased number of E1, E2 and sustained E2 per insect, p<0.05) in eggplants than non-viruliferous whiteflies. Furthermore, the duration of the salivation phase in phloem sieve elements (E1) preceding sustained sap ingestion was longer in viruliferous than in non-viruliferous whiteflies (p<0.05). This particular probing behavior is known to significantly enhance the inoculation efficiency of TYLCV by B. tabaci. Our results show evidence that TYLCV directly manipulates the settling, probing and feeding behavior of its vector B. tabaci in a way that enhances virus transmission efficiency and spread. Furthermore, TYLCV-B. tabaci interactions are mutually beneficial to both the virus and its vector because B. tabaci feeds more efficiently after acquisition of TYLCV. This outcome has clear implications in the epidemiology and management of the TYLCV-B. tabaci complex. © 2013 Moreno-Delafuente et al.

Campos-Herrera R.,University of Florida | Campos-Herrera R.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | El-Borai F.E.,University of Florida | El-Borai F.E.,Zagazig University | Duncan L.W.,University of Florida
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2012

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) are promising biological control agents of soil-dwelling insect pests of many crops. These nematodes are ubiquitous in both natural and agricultural areas. Their efficacy against arthropods is affected directly and indirectly by food webs and edaphic conditions. It has long been suggested that a greater understanding of EPN ecology is needed to achieve consistent biological control by these nematodes and the development of molecular tools is helping to overcome obstacles to the study of cryptic organisms and complex interactions. Here we extend the repertoire of molecular tools to characterize soil food webs by describing primers/probe set to quantify certain free-living, bactivorous nematodes (FLBNs) that interact with EPNs in soil. Three FLBN isolates were recovered from soil baited with insect larvae. Morphological and molecular characterization confirmed their identities as Acrobeloides maximum (RT-1-R15C and RT-2-R25A) and Rhabditis rainai (PT-R14B). Laboratory experiments demonstrated the ability of these FLBNs to interfere with the development of Steinernema diaprepesi, Steinernema riobrave and Heterorhabditis indica parasitizing the weevil Diaprepes abbreviatus (P< 0.001), perhaps due to resource competition. A molecular probe was developed for the strongest competitor, A. maximum. We selected the highly conserved SSU rDNA sequence to design the primers/probe, because these sequences are more abundantly available for free-living nematodes than ITS sequences that can likely provide better taxonomic resolution. Our molecular probe can identify organisms that share ≥98% similarity at this locus. The use of this molecular probe to characterize soil communities from samples of nematode DNA collected within a citrus orchard revealed positive correlations (P< 0.01) between Acrobeloides-group nematodes and total numbers of EPNs (S. diaprepesi, H. indica and Heterorhabditis zealandica) as well as a complex of nematophagous fungi comprising Catenaria sp. and Monachrosporium gephyropagum that are natural enemies of EPNs. These relationships can be broadly interpreted as supporting Linford's hypothesis, i.e., decomposition of organic matter (here, insect cadavers) greatly increases bactivorous nematodes and their natural enemies. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Rodriguez-Echeverria S.,University of Coimbra | Fajardo S.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Ruiz-Diez B.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA | Fernandez-Pascual M.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA
Oecologia | Year: 2012

The degree of specialization in the legume-rhizobium mutualism and the variation in the response to different potential symbionts are crucial factors for understanding the process of invasion by exotic legumes and the consequences for the native resident plants and bacteria. The enhanced novel mutualism hypothesis predicts that exotic invasive legumes would take advantage of native rhizobia present in the invaded soils. However, recent studies have shown that exotic legumes might become invasive by using exotic introduced microsymbionts, and that they could be a source of exotic bacteria for native legumes. To unravel the role of novel and old symbioses in the progress of invasion, nodulation and symbiotic effectiveness were analyzed for exotic invasive plants and native co-occurring legumes in a Mediterranean coastal dune ecosystem. Although most of the studied species nodulated with bacteria from distant origins these novel mutualisms were less effective in terms of nodulation, nitrogenase activity and plant growth than the interactions of plants and bacteria from the same origin. The relative effect of exotic bradyrhizobia was strongly positive for exotic invasive legumes and detrimental for native shrubs. We conclude that (1) the studied invasive legumes do not rely on novel mutualisms but rather need the co-introduction of compatible symbionts, and (2) since exotic rhizobia colonize native legumes in invaded areas, the lack of effectiveness of these novel symbiosis demonstrated here suggests that invasion can disrupt native belowground mutualisms and reduce native legumes fitness. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Rodriguez Martin J.A.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia | Carbonell G.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacion Y Tecnologia Agraria Y Alimentaria Inia | Nanos N.,Technical University of Madrid | Gutierrez C.,Institute Ciencias Agrarias ICA
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology | Year: 2013

This study spatially analysed the relation between mercury (Hg) content in soil and Hg in rock fragment for the purpose of assessing natural soil Hg contribution compared with Hg from human inputs. We present the Hg content of 318 soil and rock fragment samples from 11 islands distributed into two Spanish archipelagos (the volcanic Canary Islands [Canaries] and the Mediterranean Balearic [Balearic] islands). Assumedly both are located far enough away from continental Hg sources to be able to minimise the effects of diffuse pollution. Physical and chemical soil properties were also specified for the samples. Hg contents were significantly greater in the Balearic limestone soils (61 μg kg-1) than in the volcanic soils of the Canaries (33 μg kg -1). Hg levels were also greater in topsoil than in rocky fragments, especially on the Balearics. The soil-to-rock ratios varied between 1 and 30. Interestingly, the highest topsoil-to-rock Hg ratio (>16 ×) was found in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant in Majorca, whereas no similar areas in the Canary archipelago were identified. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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