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Hernandez-Castellano L.E.,University of Bern | Ferreira A.M.,ITQB UNL Institute Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica | Ferreira A.M.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Nanni P.,ETH Zurich | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2016

Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is a significant limitation to animal production. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Herein, label free proteomics was used to characterize the effects of SWL in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant) and Palmera (susceptible). Nine Majorera and 10 Palmera dairy goats were used, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed and a control group: Majorera Control (MC), Palmera Control (PC), Majorera Restricted (ME) and Palmera Restricted (PE). At day 22, mammary gland biopsy samples were obtained. Label free proteomic analysis enabled the identification of over 1000 proteins, of which 96 showed differential expression between two of the groups within studied comparisons. Majorera breed showed higher expression of immune system related proteins. In contrast, Palmera breed showed higher expression of proteins related to apoptosis. Results indicate that the two goat breeds have a distinct metabolism reaction to SWL, and that proteins related to the immune system and apoptosis such as cadherin-13, collagen alpha-1, nidogen-2, clusterin and protein s100-A8 could be considered putative candidates as markers of tolerance to SWL. Biological significance: Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is one of the major constraints to animal production in the tropics. We compared the proteomics profiles of two dairy goat breeds with different levels of tolerance to SWL under control and feed restriction conditions using label free proteomics. We have identified over 1000 proteins in the goat mammary gland, of which 96 showed differential expression. Despite the fact that both breeds showed a decrease in the number of proteins related to protein, carbohydrates and fat biosynthesis, the tolerant breed showed higher expression of immune system related proteins compared to the susceptible breed. On the contrary, the susceptible breed had higher expression of apoptosis related proteins indicating that both breeds reacted differently to weight loss and that proteins related to the immune system and apoptosis such as cadherin-13, collagen alpha 1, nidogen-2 or clusterin may be suggested as markers of tolerance to SWL. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Almeida M.,University of Evora | Azeda C.,University of Evora | Guiomar N.,University of Evora | Pinto-Correia T.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2016

The Portuguese silvo-pastoral system montado is broadly classified as a High Nature Value (HNV) system since it corresponds to farmland hosting high biodiversity levels, and such biodiversity depends on specific land use practices. However, in recent decades a decline both in the total montado area and in the tree cover density within the montado has been observed, driven mainly by management changes. This decline may result in biodiversity loss. Grazing is a central aspect determining the long-term sustainability of the montado system and it has implications also on the montado structural diversity, particularly on connectivity and heterogeneity, which is crucial for the maintenance of montado HNV. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how variations in montado structural diversity are correlated with grazing management and its implications on the value of the system for conservation. The empirical data derives from a case study composed of 41 montado farms in two municipalities of the Alentejo region. Data on grazing management, biophysical and spatial factors were collected and several metrics were calculated to assess montado fragmentation and heterogeneity. A multivariate analysis was performed using generalized additive models. Results show that different grazing patterns, depending on stocking density and grazing animal type, are correlated with variations in montado fragmentation and heterogeneity. Particularly, cattle’s grazing is shown to have adverse effects on the montado fragmentation, while sheep grazing is shown to have stronger impacts on the heterogeneity within the montado patches. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Fernandes J.P.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Fernandes J.P.,University of Evora | Guiomar N.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Guiomar N.,University of Evora | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2015

The present paper addresses the conservation planning and management issues of terrestrial ecosystems with particular insight to small islands (with examples of application in the Macaronesian archipelagos of Cape Verde, Canaries, Madeira and Azores). It analyses specific conservation planning and management approaches and proposes concrete characterization and evaluation frameworks able to support decision and management processes ensuring an active and participative involvement of all concerned stakeholders. These methodological perspectives involve not only new paradigmatic approaches to the process of characterization and evaluation of environmental elements and processes as well as their use and disturbance through land use, but also regarding the individual and collective perspectives regarding benefice and supporting management behaviours. Some examples from islands of the Macaronesian archipelagos, in particular Pico in the archipelago of Azores and Santiago in the Cape Verde archipelago, are used to illustrate some possible management approaches, involving the consideration of the entire island as a conservation object and mobilizing their actors (individuals, groups, administrations or other organizations) as conscious, participative stakeholders. These examples involve possible land use and management changes and trade-off processes specific to each island that are listed and explained. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Martins N.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Carreiro E.P.,University of Evora | Simoes M.,University of Evora | Burke A.J.,University of Evora | Garcia R.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas
Reactive and Functional Polymers | Year: 2014

This study concerns the first attempt to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective recognition of dimethoate using an iniferter polymerization technique (Inif-MIP). The synthesized polymers were fully characterized. SEM micrographs show a large accessibility to the binding sites with a significant improvement in MIP morphology. Inif-MIPs displayed high adsorption capacity (Q = 5.3 mg g-1). The selectivity of this imprinting system was also assessed by means of cross-selectivity assays and the results obtained show that Inif-MIP displays a high selectivity for dimethoate, whereas some structural analogues (omethoate, malathion and methidathion) are poorly retained (6.3-28.7%) or not retained at all (fenthion). Inif-MISPE methodology was implemented by packing Inif-MIPs particles into a Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) cartridge and the loading, washing and eluting steps were optimized. The suitability of this sample preparation technique was demonstrated, as concentrations of dimethoate close to the tolerated maximum residue limits in the olive oil samples could be satisfactorily analyzed with good precision and accuracy. Some remarkable characteristics, like the sorbent reusability (at least 20 cycles without the lost of selectivity), low solvent consumption, reduced sample handling and, moreover higher recovery rates reaching 88% could be ascribed to the Inif-MISPE methodology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Shahidian S.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Serralheiro R.P.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Serrano J.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Teixeira J.L.,University of Lisbon
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2013

The Hargreaves-Samani (HS) evapotranspiration equation is very useful for the on-site irrigation management in data-short situations such as small and midsize farms and landscaped areas. Although much work has been performed to improve the precision of the evapotranspiration (ETo) estimates for use at new locations, the results have not been consistent and many have not been confirmed by other works. The purpose of this study was to review and to evaluate the seven most promising parameters used for the calibration of the HS evapotranspiration equation, using two different regions: California and Bolivia. The results of this study show that annual correlations between HS and Penman-Monteith can be misleading because the correlation is poor in the humid months and improves progressively along the dry season until the first rains. The average monthly wind speed can be used for both spatial and seasonal calibration of the HS equation, especially during the irrigation season. Elevation and precipitation can be used to calibrate the HS equation when no reference ETo values are available at nearby stations. The monthly value of KT calculated from solar radiation follows a parabolic function along the year and should not be used for improving the estimates of the HS equation because the clearness index produces better results than actual solar radiation measurements. The results also indicate that the use of distance to coast, temperature range and temperature parameter does not improve the precision of the HS equation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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