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Inigo S.,CONICET | Inigo S.,National University of Quilmes | Giraldez A.N.,CONICET | Giraldez A.N.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Dr Cesar Milstein | And 3 more authors.
Plant Physiology

The Mediator complex is a greater than 1-megadalton complex, composed of about 30 subunits and found in most eukaryotes, whose main role is to transmit signals from DNA-bound transcription factors to RNA Polymerase II. The proteasome is emerging as an important regulator of transcription during both initiation and elongation. It is increasing the number of cases where the proteolysis of transcriptional activators by the proteasome activates their function. This counterintuitive phenomenon was called "activation by destruction." Here, we show that, in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), PHYTOCHROME AND FLOWERING TIME1 (PFT1), the MEDIATOR25 (MED25) subunit of the plant Mediator complex, is degraded by the proteasome and that proteasome-mediated PFT1 turnover is coupled to its role in stimulating the transcription of FLOWERING LOCUS T, the plant florigen, which is involved in the process of flowering induction. We further identify two novel RING-H2 proteins that target PFT1 for degradation. We show that MED25-BINDING RING-H2 PROTEIN1 (MBR1) and MBR2 bind to PFT1 in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and in vitro, and they promote PFT1 degradation in vivo, in a RING-H2- dependent way, typical of E3 ubiquitin ligases. We further show that both MBR1 and MBR2 also promote flowering by PFT1- dependent and -independent mechanisms. Our findings extend the phenomenon of activation by destruction to a Mediator subunit, adding a new mechanism by which Mediator subunits may regulate downstream genes in specific pathways. Furthermore, we show that two novel RING-H2 proteins are involved in the destruction of PFT1, adding new players to this process in plants. © 2012 American Society of Plant Biologists. Source

Capozzo A.V.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Dr Cesar Milstein | Martinez M.R.,Fundacion de Estudios en Virologia Animal | Schielen W.J.G.,Prionics Lelystad BV

In many countries, foot and mouth disease (FMD) is controlled by vaccination and surveillance against non-capsid proteins (NCP); therefore vaccines are required not to induce antibodies against NCP. Vaccine purity is evaluated by repeated inoculation of naïve cattle, an expensive and time consuming protocol that raises several animal welfare concerns. We have developed an in process control filtration-assisted chemiluminometric immunoassay (FAL-ELISA), to detect and quantify NCP in vaccine-antigen batches regardless of its volume and composition. Samples are filtered through PVDF-filter microplates pre-coated with a monoclonal antibody against NCP. Filtration removes all unbound components in the sample and captured NCP are detected by anti-NCP conjugate followed by incubation with the substrate, luminol/peroxide. Analytical detection limit was 2. ng for purified NCP and 4. ng for vaccine-antigen batches spiked with NCP, which makes this assay sensitive enough to be applied to purity control of FMD vaccines. Vaccine components did not interfere with the antibody and substrate reactions in the assay. FAL-ELISA is an alternative for the in vivo tests, observing the objective to Replace, Reduce and Refine the use of animals for quality control of immunobiologicals. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Baravalle M.E.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Baravalle M.E.,CONICET | Thompson C.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | de Echaide S.T.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 6 more authors.
Parasitology International

The apical complex of intracellular hemoparasites contains organelles like micronemes and rhoptries, specialized structures required for adherence and invasion of host cells. Several molecules discharged from rhoptries have been identified from Plasmodium spp., but only a single rhoptry associated protein-1 (RAP-1) has been characterized from Babesia bovis. In silico search of the B. bovis genome allowed to identifying a sequence homologous to the gene that encodes a P. falciparum rhoptry protein PfRhop148. The intron-less 1830. bp novel gene, predicted a 68. kDa protein, and it was highly conserved among different B. bovis strains and isolates. The deducted protein from the B. bovis T2Bo strain, named BboRhop68, showed two putative transmembrane domains, at least seven B-cell epitopes, and a well conserved DUF501 super family domain. The bborhop68 gene was amplified, analyzed and compared among different B. bovis strains and isolates showing overall high sequence conservation. A fragment of bborhop68 was expressed as a recombinant fusion protein (rBboRhop68). The mice anti-rBboRhop68 serum identified the novel protein in intraerythrocytic trophozoites and merozoites by WB and ELISA, but not in free merozoites. Sera from naturally and experimentally infected bovines also recognized BboRhop68, suggesting that it is expressed and immunogenic during B. bovis infection. Fluorescence microscopy analysis using anti-rBboRhop68 antibodies showed a rod structure associated to trophozoites and merozoites infected erythrocytes, but this pattern of reactivity was not observed in free merozoites. The BboRhop68 was also not detected in ELISA based on solubilized merozoites. Thus, at least three independent lines of evidence support differential expression of BboRhop68 in intraerythrocytic stages of B. bovis and its possible functional role immediately after B. bovis erythrocyte invasion. The results of this work suggest that BboRhop68 could be considered as a novel additional target for developing improved methods to control bovine babesiosis. © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source

Morgan K.L.,University of Liverpool | Handel I.G.,University of Edinburgh | Tanya V.N.,Institute of Agricultural Research for Development | Tanya V.N.,Ministry of Scientific Research and Innovation | And 9 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases

Herdsman-reported disease prevalence is widely used in veterinary epidemiologic studies, especially for diseases with visible external lesions; however, the accuracy of such reports is rarely validated. Thus, we used latent class analysis in a Bayesian framework to compare sensitivity and specificity of herdsman reporting with virus neutralization testing and use of 3 nonstructural protein ELISAs for estimates of foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevalence on the Adamawa plateau of Cameroon in 2000. Herdsman-reported estimates in this FMD-endemic area were comparable to those obtained from serologic testing. To harness to this cost-effective resource of monitoring emerging infectious diseases, we suggest that estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of herdsmen reporting should be done in parallel with serologic surveys of other animal diseases. © 2014, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). All rights reserved. Source

Sarute N.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Calderon M.G.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Dr Cesar Milstein | Perez R.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | La Torre J.,Institute Ciencia Y Tecnologia Dr Cesar Milstein | And 3 more authors.

Canine distemper virus (CDV; Paramyxoviridae, Morbillivirus) is the etiologic agent of a multisystemic infectious disease affecting all terrestrial carnivore families with high incidence and mortality in domestic dogs. Sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin (H) gene has been widely employed to characterize field strains, permitting the identification of nine CDV lineages worldwide. Recently, it has been established that the sequences of the fusion protein signal-peptide (Fsp) coding region are extremely variable, suggesting that analysis of its sequence might be useful for strain characterization studies. However, the divergence of Fsp sequences among worldwide strains and its phylogenetic resolution has not yet been evaluated. We constructed datasets containing the Fsp-coding region and H gene sequences of the same strains belonging to eight CDV lineages. Both datasets were used to evaluate their phylogenetic resolution. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that both datasets clustered the same strains into eight different branches, corresponding to CDV lineages. The inter-lineage amino acid divergence was fourfold greater for the Fsp peptide than for the H protein. The likelihood mapping revealed that both datasets display strong phylogenetic signals in the region of well-resolved topologies. These features indicate that Fsp-coding region sequence analysis is suitable for evolutionary studies as it allows for straightforward identification of CDV lineages. © 2013 Sarute et al. Source

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