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Loureiro S.O.,Institute Cicncias Basicas da Saude | Heimfarth L.,Institute Cicncias Basicas da Saude | Scherer E.B.S.,Institute Cicncias Basicas da Saude | da Cunha M.J.,Institute Cicncias Basicas da Saude | And 4 more authors.
Experimental Cell Research

Hyperprolinemia is an inherited disorder of proline (Pro) metabolism and patients affected by this disease may present neurological manifestations. However, the mechanisms of neural excitotoxicity elicited by hyperprolinemia are far from being understood. Considering the pivotal role of cytoskeletal remodeling in several neurodegenerative pathologies and the potential links between cytoskeleton, reactive oxygen species production and cell death, the aim of the present work was to study the effects of Pro on astrocyte and neuron cytoskeletal remodeling and the possible oxidative stress involvement. Pro induced a shift of actin cytoskeleton in stress fibers together with increased RhoA immunocontent and ERK1/2 phosphorylation/activation in cortical astrocytes. Unlike astrocytes, results evidenced little susceptibility of neuron cytoskeleton remodeling, since Pro-treated neurons presented unaltered neuritogenesis. We observed increased hydrogen peroxide production characterizing oxidative stress together with decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities in cortical astrocytes after Pro treatment, while glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) activity remained unaltered. However, coincubation with Pro and Trolox/melatonin prevented decreased SOD and CAT activities in Pro-treated astrocytes. Accordingly, these antioxidants were able to prevent the remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, RhoA increased levels and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to high Pro exposure. Taken together, these findings indicated that the cytoskeleton of cortical astrocytes, but not of neurons in culture, is a target to Pro and such effects could be mediated, at least in part, by redox imbalance, RhoA and ERK1/2 signaling pathways. The vulnerability of astrocyte cytoskeleton may have important implications for understanding the effects of Pro in the neurotoxicity linked to inborn errors of Pro metabolism. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source

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