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Puntes V.,Institute Catala Of Recerca I Estudis Avancats | Puntes V.,Vall d Hebron Research Institute
British Journal of Radiology | Year: 2015

The potential use of nanoparticles (NPs) in medicine is determined by the pharmacokinetical and biodistribution aspects that govern NP behaviour. In this context, diagnosis (low irradiation dose) and therapy (high irradiation dose) is about the same for the NP, as much as to deliver toxic doses of radiation or toxic doses of a chemotherapeutic agent. The NP effects also have to be correlated with how they interact, evolve and are transformed during their exposure to the human body, during their administration, distribution, metabolization and expulsion. Indeed, owing to interactions between NPs and components from the biological medium, NPs are known to suffer different types of alterations, such as loss of colloidal stability (aggregation and sedimentation), protein adsorption (and consequent exposure to or escape from the immune system) and chemical transformation (oxidation, corrosion and dissolution). Their original performance and these alterations have a major impact on NP behaviour and have to be taken into account for any intended use of them in medicine, also including their use for enhanced radiodiagnosis, radiotherapy and radiochemotherapy. © 2015 The Authors. Published by the British Institute of Radiology. Source

Sanchez A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Recillas S.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Font X.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Casals E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 3 more authors.
TrAC - Trends in Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2011

This article presents recent developments on the use of inorganic nanoparticles (NPs) for environmental remediation in polluted soil, water and gas. The number of publications on these topics has grown exponentially in recent years, especially those focused on wastewater treatment. Among these topics, removal of metals has become the most popular, although some works relate to the use of nanomaterials for the elimination of nutrients (e.g., nitrogen and some persistent organic pollutants). However, this growth has not been accompanied by knowledge about the behavior of NPs once used and released into the environment. In this article, we also comment upon the current situation with respect to NP toxicology (nanotoxicology). A remarkable number of different toxicology tests has been applied to NPs, often making it very difficult to interpret or to generalize the results. We analyze in detail the bioluminescence, Daphnia magna and other tests, and give some preliminary results obtained in our work. © 2011. Source

Garcia A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Delgado L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Tora J.A.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Casals E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Hazardous Materials | Year: 2012

Growth in production and use of nanoparticles (NPs) will result increased concentrations of these in industrial and urban wastewaters and, consequently, in wastewater-treatment facilities. The effect of this increase on the performance of the wastewater-treatment process has not been studied systematically and including all the microbial communities involved in wastewater treatment. The present work investigates, by using respiration tests and biogas-production analysis, the inhibitory effect of four different commonly used metal oxide (CeO 2 and TiO 2) and zero-valent metal (Ag and Au) nanoparticles on the activity of the most important microbial communities present in a modern wastewater-treatment plant. Specifically, the actions of ordinary heterotrophic organisms, ammonia oxidizing bacteria, and thermophilic and mesophilic anaerobic bacteria were tested in the presence and absence of the nanoparticles. In general, CeO 2 nanoparticles caused the greatest inhibition in biogas production (nearly 100%) and a strong inhibitory action of other biomasses; Ag nanoparticles caused an intermediate inhibition in biogas production (within 33-50%) and a slight inhibition in the action of other biomasses, and Au and TiO 2 nanoparticles caused only slight or no inhibition for all tested biomasses. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Ariza L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gimenez-Llort L.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Cubizolle A.,Montpellier University | Pages G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | And 8 more authors.
Human Gene Therapy | Year: 2014

Canine adenovirus type 2 vectors (CAV-2) are promising tools to treat global central nervous system (CNS) disorders because of their preferential transduction of neurons and efficient retrograde axonal transport. Here we tested the potential of a helper-dependent CAV-2 vector expressing β-glucuronidase (HD-RIGIE) in a mouse model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VII (MPS VII), a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency in β-glucuronidase activity. MPS VII leads to glycosaminoglycan accumulation into enlarged vesicles in peripheral tissues and the CNS, resulting in peripheral and neuronal dysfunction. After intracranial administration of HD-RIGIE, we show long-term expression of β-glucuronidase that led to correction of neuropathology around the injection site and in distal areas. This phenotypic correction correlated with a decrease in secondary-elevated lysosomal enzyme activity and glycosaminoglycan levels, consistent with global biochemical correction. Moreover, HD-RIGIE-treated mice show significant cognitive improvement. Thus, injections of HD-CAV-2 vectors in the brain allow a global and sustained expression and may have implications for brain therapy in patients with lysosomal storage disease. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014. Source

Laborda E.,IDIBELL Institute Catala dOncologia | Laborda E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Puig-Saus C.,IDIBELL Institute Catala dOncologia | Cascallo M.,VCN Biosciences | And 3 more authors.
Human Gene Therapy Methods | Year: 2013

The contamination of adenovirus (Ad) stocks with adeno-associated viruses (AAV) is usually unnoticed, and it has been associated with lower Ad yields upon large-scale production. During Ad propagation, AAV contamination needs to be detected routinely by polymerase chain reaction without symptomatic suspicion. In this study, we describe that the coinfection of either Ad wild type 5 or oncolytic Ad with AAV results in a large-plaque phenotype associated with an accelerated release of Ad from coinfected cells. This accelerated release was accompanied with the expected decrease in Ad yields in two out of three cell lines tested. Despite this lower Ad yield, coinfection with AAV accelerated cell death and enhanced the cytotoxicity mediated by Ad propagation. Intratumoral coinjection of Ad and AAV in two xenograft tumor models improved antitumor activity and mouse survival. Therefore, we conclude that accidental or intentional AAV coinfection has important implications for Ad-mediated virotherapy. © Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

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