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Lopez-Polin L.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Lopez-Polin L.,Rovira i Virgili University
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

The Pleistocene record can be simultaneously studied from different disciplines within the fields of archaeology and palaeontology. Each of these disciplines seeks slightly different information and makes use of different methodologies. These differences may change the goal of the conservation treatments, affect the degree of intervention or require the limited application of certain techniques and materials.This article discusses the basic reasons why some researchers may request a closer focus on recovering the original appearance of the bones while others require their taphonomic modifications to remain intact. Further research into the needs of archaeopalaeontological studies and into adjusting conservation aims and methods to meet those needs would help to maximize the recovery and preservation of the information that fossils contain. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Blain H.-A.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Blain H.-A.,Rovira i Virgili University | Cuenca-Bescos G.,University of Zaragoza | Lozano-Fernandez I.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | And 4 more authors.
Geology | Year: 2012

In the Mediterranean area, which is climatically stressed by limited water resources and extremes of heat, climate variations are known to play a crucial role in the ecosystems and environment. Investigating how climate has changed in the past may help us to understand how it may change in the future and its consequences on temperature and water resources. The Gran Dolina sequence (north-central Spain) provides a unique long paleontological and archaeological record spanning the Mid-Brunhes (ca. 450 ka) climatic transition. A fossil amphibian- and squamate-based reconstruction of temperature and precipitation shows marked peaks that have been related to various interglacial peaks in accordance with numeric dates and paleomagnetic and biochronological data. An analysis of climate and herpetofaunal assemblage changes during the interglacial periods reveals that (1) post-Mid-Brunhes Event (MBE) interglacials were warmer than pre-MBE interglacials, (2) pre-MBE interglacials were warmer than present day, and (3) there were lower levels of rainfall in post-MBE interglacials than in pre-MBE interglacials. The climate trend in the Mediterranean area was found to be congruous with global climate changes as reconstructed from ice and sea-surface temperature records over the past million years. © 2012 Geological Society of America.

Hardy B.L.,Kenyon College | Moncel M.-H.,French Natural History Museum | Daujeard C.,French Natural History Museum | Fernandes P.,Paleotime | And 6 more authors.
Quaternary Science Reviews | Year: 2013

Neanderthal behavior is often described in one of two contradictory ways: 1) Neanderthals were behaviorally inflexible and specialized in large game hunting or 2) Neanderthals exhibited a wide range of behaviors and exploited a wide range of resources including plants and small, fast game. Using stone tool residue analysis with supporting information from zooarchaeology, we provide evidence that at the Abri du Maras, Ardèche, France, Neanderthals were behaviorally flexible at the beginning of MIS 4. Here, Neanderthals exploited a wide range of resources including large mammals, fish, ducks, raptors, rabbits, mushrooms, plants, and wood. Twisted fibers on stone tools provide evidence of making string or cordage. Using a variety of lines of evidence, we show the presence of stone projectile tips, possibly used in complex projectile technology. This evidence shows a level of behavioral variability that is often denied to Neanderthals. Furthermore, it sheds light on perishable materials and resources that are not often recovered which should be considered more fully in reconstructions of Neanderthal behavior. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Verges J.M.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Verges J.M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Morales J.I.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Morales J.I.,Rovira i Virgili University
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

The polish generated by sheep and goats in the walls of caves and stone-made enclosures is a clear indicator about their use as a livestock folds. The study of the polish distribution and intensity, together with the data revealed by the sedimentary context, or even if it is absent, allows to understand the kind of management carried out with the animal dung. In this way it is possible to identify if the dung has been merely dismissed, if it has been periodically extracted for the field manuring, and also if it has been intensively exploited by the completely emptying of the caves. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Lozano M.,Iphes Institute Catala Of Paleoecologia Humana I Evolucio Social | Lozano M.,Rovira i Virgili University | Bermudez de Castro J.M.,Cenieh National Research Center Sobre Evolucion Humana | Bermudez de Castro J.M.,University College London | And 3 more authors.
Quaternary International | Year: 2015

Cultural dental wear provides useful information about the use of anterior teeth for non-masticatory purposes. Non-alimentary tasks are usually related to economic and cultural activities. The presence of cultural dental wear has been checked in four different Homo species from the Sierra de Atapuerca sites (Sima del Elefante, Gran Dolina-TD6, Sima de los Huesos and El Mirador cave). The chronology of these sites ranges from more than one million to 4000 years ago.Evidence of dental wear has been documented in the four Homo species analysed, confirming that hominins began using their teeth as tools as far back as one million years ago. Each species exhibits specific typologies and frequencies of dental wear features. Also, dental features are located on different dental surfaces and tooth types, indicating a diversity of activities carried out using the anterior teeth as a tool.The use of the teeth as a tool was a widespread habit in the genus Homo. However, the diversity of dental wear patterns can be related to cultural and economic activities, broadening our knowledge of the behaviour of ancient hominins. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

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