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Iglesias R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Aguasca A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Fabregas X.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Mallorqui J.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

Ground-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) (GB-SAR) sensors represent an effective solution for the monitoring of ground displacement episodes. Initially, the most GB-SAR sensors were based on vector network analyzers (VNA). This type of solution, characterized by a slow scanning time comparable to the decorrelation of the troposphere medium, compromised in many cases the quality of final products for the application of persistent scatterer interferomerty (PSI) techniques. The development of GB-SAR sensors based on the use of stepped linear frequency modulated continuous wave (SLFMCW) signals has led to significant improvements during the last years. They have allowed fulfilling the need of temporal homogeneity of the troposphere during the acquisition time and, moreover, they have favored the acquisition of reliable polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) measurements without drastically increasing the scanning time. This fact has boosted the inclusion of polarimetric SAR interferometry (PolInSAR) algorithms in PSI processing chains, which are demonstrating to outperform classical single-polarimetric performances. The objective of this paper is twofold. On the one hand, a general overview of the polarimetric RiskSAR sensor, developed by the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), is put forward as an example of SLFMCW GB-SAR system implementation. On the other hand, a complete theoretical description of ground-based SAR (GB-SAR) interferometry (GB-InSAR) techniques for PSI purposes is widely discussed. The adaptation of the Coherent Pixels Technique to obtain the linear and nonlinear components of ground displacement phenomena is proposed. In the second part of this paper, the displacement maps and time series over two very different scenarios are presented in order to show the feasibility of GB-SAR sensors for terrain displacement monitoring applications. © 2008-2012 IEEE.


Iglesias R.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Aguasca A.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Fabregas X.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | Mallorqui J.J.,Polytechnic University of Catalonia | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing | Year: 2015

Urban subsidence and landslides are among the greatest hazards for people and infrastructure safety and they require an especial attention to reduce their associated risks. In this framework, ground-based synthetic aperture radar (SAR) interferometry (GB-InSAR) represents a cost-effective solution for the precise monitoring of displacements. This work presents the application of GB-InSAR techniques, particularly with the RiskSAR sensor and its processing chain developed by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSLab) of the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), for the monitoring of two different types of ground displacement. An example of urban subsidence monitoring over the village of Sallent, northeastern of Spain, and an example of landslide monitoring in El Forn de Canillo, located in the Andorran Pyrenees, are presented. In this framework, the key processing particularities for each case are deeply analyzed and discussed. The linear displacement maps and time series for both scenarios are showed and compared with in-field data. For the study, fully polarimetric data acquired at X-band with a zero-baseline configuration are employed in both scenarios. The displacement results obtained demonstrate the capabilities of GB-SAR sensors for the precise monitoring of ground displacement phenomena. © 2008-2012 IEEE.

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