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Pierre-Bénite, France

Mamessier E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Mamessier E.,Aix - Marseille University | Mamessier E.,Institute Carnot CALYM | Broussais-Guillaumot F.,Institute Carnot CALYM | And 11 more authors.
Haematologica | Year: 2014

It is now widely recognized that cancer development is a protracted process requiring the stepwise acquisition of multiple oncogenic events. In humans, this process can take decades, if not a lifetime, blurring the notion of 'healthy' individuals. Follicular lymphoma exemplifies this multistep pathway of oncogenesis. In recent years, variants of follicular lymphoma have been recognized that appear to represent clonal B-cell expansions at an early stage of follicular lymphoma lymphomagenesis. These include follicular lymphoma in situ, duodenal follicular lymphoma, partial involvement by follicular lymphoma, and in the blood circulating follicular lymphoma-like B cells. Recent genetic studies have identified similarities and differences between the early lesions and overt follicular lymphoma, providing important information for understanding their biological evolution. The data indicate that there is already genomic instability at these early stages, even in instances with a low risk for clinical progression. The overexpression of BCL2 in t(14;18)-positive B cells puts them at risk for subsequent genetic aberrations when they re-enter the germinal center and are exposed to the influences of activation-induced cytidine deaminase and somatic hypermutations. The emerging data provide a rationale for clinical management and, in the future, may identify genetic risk factors that warrant early therapeutic intervention. © 2014 by the Ferrata Storti Foundation. Source

Mareschal S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Dubois S.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Viailly P.-J.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Viailly P.-J.,CNRS Informatics Systems Laboratory | And 16 more authors.
Genes Chromosomes and Cancer | Year: 2016

Despite the many efforts already spent to enumerate somatic mutations in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), previous whole-genome and whole-exome studies conducted on patients of mixed outcomes failed at characterizing the 30% of patients who will relapse or resist current immunochemotherapies. To address this issue, we performed whole-exome sequencing of normal/tumoral DNA pairs in 14 relapsed/refractory (R/R) patients subclassified by full-transcriptome arrays (six activated B-cell like, three germinal center B-cell like, and five primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas), from the LNH-03 LYSA clinical trial program. Aside from well-known DLBCL features, gene and pathway level recurrence analyses proposed several interesting leads including TBL1XR1 and activating mutations in IRF4 or in the insulin regulation pathway. Sequencing-based copy number analysis defined 23 short recurrently altered regions involving genes such as REL, CDKN2A, HYAL2, and TP53. Moreover, it highlighted mutations in genes such as GNA13, CARD11, MFHAS1, and PCLO as associated with secondary variant allele amplification events. The five primary mediastinal B-cell lymphomas (PMBL), while unexpected in a R/R cohort, showed a significantly higher mutation rate (P = 0.003) and provided many insights on this classical Hodgkin lymphoma related subtype. Novel genes such as XPO1, MFHAS1, and ITPKB were found particularly mutated, along with various cytokine-based signaling pathways. Among these analyses, somatic events in the NF-κB pathway were found preponderant in the three DLBCL subtypes, confirming its major implication in DLBCL aggressiveness and pinpointing several new candidate genes. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Tosolini M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tosolini M.,University Paul Sabatier | Tosolini M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Tosolini M.,Laboratoire dExcellence TOUCAN | And 10 more authors.
European Journal of Immunology | Year: 2015

Cyclic dinucleotides, a class of microbial messengers, have been recently identified in bacteria, but their activity in humans remains largely unknown. Here, we have studied the function of cyclic dinucleotides in humans. We found that c-di-AMP and cGAMP, two adenosine-based cyclic dinucleotides, activated T lymphocytes in an unusual manner through monocyte cell death. c-di-AMP and cGAMP induced the selective apoptosis of human monocytes, and T lymphocytes were activated by the direct contact with these dying monocytes. The ensuing T-cell response comprised cell-cycle exit, phenotypic maturation into effector memory cells and proliferation arrest, but not cell death. This quiescence was transient since T cells remained fully responsive to further restimulation. Together, our results depict a novel activation pattern for human T lymphocytes: a transient quiescence induced by c-di-AMP- or cGAMP-primed apoptotic monocytes. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Tosolini M.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Tosolini M.,University Paul Sabatier | Tosolini M.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Tosolini M.,Laboratoire dExcellence TOUCAN | And 29 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2015

Cyclic dinucleotides are important messengers for bacteria and protozoa and are well-characterized immunity alarmins for infected mammalian cells through intracellular binding to STING receptors. We sought to investigate their unknown extracellular effects by adding cyclic dinucleotides to the culture medium of freshly isolated human blood cells in vitro. Here we report that adenosine-containing cyclic dinucleotides induce the selective apoptosis of monocytes through a novel apoptotic pathway. We demonstrate that these compounds are inverse agonist ligands of A2a, a Gαs-coupled adenosine receptor selectively expressed by monocytes. Inhibition of monocyte A2a by these ligands induces apoptosis through a mechanism independent of that of the STING receptors. The blockade of basal (adenosine-free) signaling from A2a inhibits protein kinase A (PKA) activity, thereby recruiting cytosolic p53, which opens the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and impairs mitochondrial respiration, resulting in apoptosis. A2a antagonists and inverse agonist ligands induce apoptosis of human monocytes, while A2a agonists are antiapoptotic. In vivo, we used a mock developing human hematopoietic system through NSG mice transplanted with human CD34+ cells. Treatment with cyclic di-AMP selectively depleted A2a-expressing monocytes and their precursors via apoptosis. Thus, monocyte recognition of cyclic dinucleotides unravels a novel proapoptotic pathway: the A2a Gαs protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-driven tonic inhibitory signaling of mitochondrion-induced cell death. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. Source

Decaup E.,French Institute of Health and Medical Research | Decaup E.,University Paul Sabatier | Decaup E.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Decaup E.,Laboratoire dExcellence TOUCAN | And 24 more authors.
Immunology Letters | Year: 2014

Human γδ cells expressing TCRVγ9 are T lymphocytes with great potential for cancer immunotherapy and unconventional pattern of antigen specificity. These HLA-unrestricted lymphocytes are specifically reactive to non-peptide metabolites (phosphoantigens) and to the butyrophilin 3A (BTN3A/CD277) protein. Whether recognition of such highly different structures trigger the same activation signaling pathway remains unclear, however. Here we combined fluorescent cell barcoding and phosphoflow analysis of TCRVγ9+ T lymphocytes to compare simultaneously the level of several signaling phosphoproteins after activation by phosphoantigen (BrHPP) or by anti-BTN3A (monoclonal antibody 20.1). This approach shows that the same pathways involving ZAP70, PLCγ2, Akt, NFκB p65, MAPK p38 and Erk1, were induced by either of these stimuli. These data strongly suggest the TCRVγ9+ T lymphocytes detect phosphoantigens and butyrophilin A3 by the same recognition process. © 2014 . Source

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