de Felicio R.,University of Sao Paulo |
de Albuquerque S.,University of Sao Paulo |
Young M.C.M.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
Yokoya N.S.,Institute Botanica |
Debonsi H.M.,University of Sao Paulo
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2010
Specimens of the red alga Bostrychia tenella J. Agardh (Rhodomelaceae, Ceramiales) were collected from the São Paulo coast and submitted to room temperature solvent extraction. The resulting extract was fractionated by partitioning with organic solvent. The n-hexane (BT-H) and dichloromethane (BT-D) fractions showed antiprotozoal potential in biological tests with Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania amazonensis and presented high activity in an antifungal assay with the phytopathogenic fungi Cladosporium cladosporioides and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. Chromatography methods were used to generate subfractions from BT-H (H01 to H11) and from BT-D (D01 to D19). The subfractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS), and the substances were identified by retention index (Kovats) and by comparison to databases of commercial mass spectra. The volatile compounds found in marine algae were identified as fatty acids, low molecular mass hydrocarbons, esters and steroids; some of these have been previously described in the literature based on other biological activities. Moreover, uncommon substances, such as neophytadiene were also identified. In a trypanocidal assay, fractions BT-H and BT-D showed IC 50 values of 16.8 and 19.1μg/mL, respectively, and were more active than the gentian violet standard (31μg/mL); subfractions H02, H03, D01 and D02 were active against L. amasonensis, exhibiting IC 50 values of 1.5, 2.7, 4.4, and 4.3μg/mL, respectively (standard amphotericin B: IC 50=13μg/mL). All fractions showed antifungal potential. This work reports the biological activity and identification of compounds by GC/MS for the marine red alga B. tenella for the first time. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.
Kelly Koch A.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
De Rezende Cardoso A.L.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi |
Ilkiu-Borges A.L.,Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi
Phytotaxa | Year: 2013
A new species of Passiflora is described from reforested post bauxite-mined area in the National Forest of Saracá-Taquera in the Brazilian state of Pará. The species is illustrated and its affinities with related species are discussed, and a key to the species of supersection Laurifoliae, series Quadrangulares is presented. The series Quadrangulares is composed of four species that constitute a small complex of large-flowered and large-fruited passionflowers with 3-4-angulate-winged stems that occurs naturally in the moist lowlands from Nicaragua to Brazil and French Guiana. However, among the four species of the series, Passiflora trialata is closely related to the new species by the 3-angular stems, the color and shape of sepals and petals, the 3-angular petioles and peduncles, and the single operculum. © 2013 Magnolia Press.
Chlorococcales s. l. (Chlorophyceae) and Zygnematales (Zygnematophyceae) in a pond of Balneário do Lérmen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil [Chlorococcales s. l. (Chlorophyceae) e Zygnematales (Zygnematophyceae) em um açude do Balneário do Lérmen, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil]
Hentschke G.S.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
Prado J.F.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul
Iheringia - Serie Botanica | Year: 2012
In Rio Grande do Sul State green algae are largely unknown and most studies are concentrated in the regions of the Coastal Plain and Central Depression, localitions near Porto Alegre. This paper aims to present the Chlorococcales and Zygnematales species found in a pond at Balneário do Lérmen, Itaára, from June 2004 to June 2005. Samples were collected with a plankton net at four stations of the pond. The water pH ranged between 6 and 8. We identified 43 taxa in specific and infra-specific levels and three taxa in generic level. The taxa Radiococcus planktonicus Lund, Golenkinia paucispina West & West, Closterium turgidum Ehrenberg ex Ralfs, Staurastrum caledonense Hüber-Pestalozzi and Staurastrum cingulum (West & West) Smith var. obesum Smith are first reports for Rio Grande do Sul State. Chlorophyceae, represented by Chlorococcales, showed greatest specific richness with 38 taxa in comparison with Zygnematophyceae (8).
Mota N.F.O.,Federal University of Minas Gerais |
Wanderley M.G.L.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo
Rodriguesia | Year: 2013
Xyris is a genus of about 400 species distributed in tropical regions, reaching temperate areas of the Americas and Australia. The Espinhaço Range concentrates a great wealth of Xyris species; the genus is among the richest of monocots occurring in these mountains. This paper presents a new species of Xyris named for its type locality, the State Park of Rio Preto, located in the far northeast of the Diamantina plateau, in the Espinhaço (Minas Gerais). Illustrations of diagnostic characters, a comparison with morphologically related species, as well as information on ecology and phenology of the new species are provided.
Casartelli M.R.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
Ferragut C.,Institute Botanica
International Review of Hydrobiology | Year: 2015
The interrelationships of periphyton with macrophytes and phytoplankton are quite complex and poorly investigated in tropical reservoirs. We investigated the changes in the periphytic algal community structure at equidistant sites with and without macrophyte growth in four seasons in a shallow tropical reservoir. Our main objective was to evaluate the influence of the presence and absence of macrophytes, as well as seasonality, on changes in the periphytic algal community. Glass slides were submerged for 30 days for periphyton colonization. Environmental data on physical and chemical variables, periphyton, phytoplankton chlorophyll a, and macrophyte coverage were recorded for each site. Periphyton structure was analyzed for chlorophyll a, AFDM, algal density, biovolume, species richness, and N:P molar ratio. Principal component analysis mainly ordinated sites along a gradient of temperature and nutrient concentration. Cluster analysis showed that the lowest similarity of periphytic algal species composition was between seasons. The highest periphyton biomass and algal abundance occurred in the dry season when there was reduced macrophyte coverage and phytoplankton chlorophyll a. Periphytic algal descriptor species and total density were more sensitive to the presence/absence of macrophytes than were other structural attributes. We found that the periphytic algal community structure on artificial substratum was influenced by seasonality and presence of macrophyte (Nymphaea spp.), as well as by the interaction of these factors. Our results highlight the importance of macrophyte coverage and phytoplankton chlorophyll a to the periphytic algal community structure in the littoral zone. The relationship between primary producers needs further investigation in shallow tropical reservoirs. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Wetzel C.E.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
Wetzel C.E.,Center De Recherche Public Gabriel Lippmann |
Lange-Bertalot H.,Goethe University Frankfurt |
Morales E.A.,Bolivian Catholic University |
And 3 more authors.
Phytotaxa | Year: 2012
Bicudoa amazonica C.E. Wetzel, Lange-Bertalot & Ector gen. nov. et sp. nov. is described using light and scanning electron microscopy. It differs from 'araphid' genera by a unique combination of characters such as the absence of a raphe system, helictoglossae, rimoportulae, apical pore fields and linking spines, while other features including striae, areolae apparently without occlusion on valve and girdle elements, structure of the cingulum, and displacement of axial area place Bicudoa close to Eunotia. The taxonomic placement of the new organism at the class and family levels is discussed and it is concluded that placing Bicudoa in any of the current Fragilariophyceae families would be inappropriate. Instead, we place Bicudoa in the Bacillariophyceae and reserve the decision to place it in a family until further evidence is gathered. Based on ultrastructure, it is proposed that Bicudoa is a rather recent result of a complete loss of the raphe system and associated structures in a relatively recent eunotioid ancestor. Bicudoa amazonica was found in the upper reaches of the Rio Negro basin (Brazilian Amazon), a low pH, black water river (oligotrophic and humic). While the taxon was rare in plankton and benthic samples, it was rather common in excrement samples of the turtle Podocnemis erythrocephala (Testudines, Podocnemididae). The discovery of Bicudoa amazonica besides to the recent description of several new eunotioid taxa from Rio Negro basin suggests that speciation and isolation leading to endemism in Amazonian oligotrophic/dystrophic habitats is remarkable. © 2012 Magnolia Press.
Moura B.B.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
de Souza S.R.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
Alves E.S.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014
Ozone (O3) is a toxic secondary pollutant able to cause an intense oxidative stress that induces visual symptoms on sensitive plant species. Controlled fumigation experiment was conducted with the aim to verify the O3 sensibility of three tropical species: Piptadenia gonoachanta (Mart.) Macbr. (Fabaceae), Astronium graveolens Jacq. (Anacardiaceae), and Croton floribundus Spreng. (Euphorbiaceae). The microscopical features involved in the oxidative stress were recognized based on specific histochemical analysis. The three species showed visual symptoms, characterized as necrosis and stippling between the veins, mostly visible on the adaxial leaf surface. All the studied species presented hypersensitive-like response (HR-like), and peroxide hydrogen accumulation (H2O2) followed by cell death and proanthocyanidin oxidation in P. gonoachanta and A. graveolens. In P. gonoachanta, a decrease in chlorophyll autofluorescence occurred on symptomatic tissues, and in A. graveolens and C. floribundus, a polyphenol compound accumulation occurred. The responses of Brazilian native species were similar to those described for sensitive species from temperate climate, and microscopical markers may be useful for the detection of ozone symptoms in future studies in the field. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Coelho C.B.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
Esteves L.M.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo
Grana | Year: 2011
The epiphytic fern genus Serpocaulon (Polypodiaceae) comprises 42 species nested within the neotropical clade of the family together with genera such as Campyloneurum, Grammitis, Microgramma, Niphidium, Pleopeltis, Pecluma, Polypodium and Terpsichore. Although Serpocaulon is a well-supported genus, its intra-specific relationships are still not completely resolved. The morphological dataset for Serpocaulon and related genera is therefore expanded here with information on spore morphology to provide additional information for phylogenetic consideration. Spores have been collected from herbarium vouchers and acetolysed for light and scanning electron microscopy. All members of the neotropical clade have monolete spores, except for Grammitis and Terpsichore, which have trilete spores. Both verrucate and papillate ornamentation types are recognised. The palynological analysis shows close similarity between spores of Serpocaulon, Campyloneurum, Pleopeltis and Polypodium and supports close phylogenetic relationships between these taxa. Species of the grammitid clade, although nested within the Polypodiaceae, have spore morphology that supports a separate position. © 2011 Collegium Palynologicum Scandinavicum.
Fardin K.M.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
Young M.C.M.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo
Letters in Applied Microbiology | Year: 2015
There is significant interest in research to develop plant extracts with fungicidal activities that are less harmful to the environment and human health than synthetic fungicides. This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal activity of the extracts of Avicennia schaueriana against Colletotrichum and Cladosporium species and to identify the compounds responsible for the activity. Leaves and stems of A. schaueriana were extracted with ethanol and partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform and ethyl acetate. The antifungal activity of such extracts was tested by bioautography against Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Cladosporium cladosporioides and Colletotrichum lagenarium. Ethanolic extracts, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of stems had the highest antifungal activity with several active bands (Rf = 0·72 and Rf = 0·55). In the agar dilution assay, ethanolic extract, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions of stems were the most efficacious, presenting 85, 62 and 63% growth inhibition of Colletotrichum gloeopsporioides and minimum inhibitory concentration values between 1 and 1·5 mg ml-1, respectively. Analysis carried out using gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometry of petroleum ether and chloroform fractions allowed the identification of fatty acids methyl esters, lupeol and naphthoquinones such as lapachol, α-lapachone, naphtho[2,3-b]furan-4,9-dione, 2-isopropyl- and avicenol-C. We may infer that the antifungal activity of A. schaueriana is due to the abundance of these compounds. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.
Pythium aphanidermatum pathogenicity to hydroponics lettuce and its biocontrol with Trichoderma [Patogenicidade de Pythium aphanidermatum a alface cultivada em hidroponia e seu biocontrole com Trichoderma]
da Silva Patekoski K.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo |
Pires-Zottarelli C.L.A.,Institute Botanica Of Sao Paulo
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2010
The objective of this work was to evaluate the pathogenicity of Pythium aphanidermatum to lettuce varieties, and the action of the product Biotrich, formulated with Trichoderma, in the control of this pathogen and its effect on plant growth promotion. In a in vitro experiment, germinated seedlings of Vera and Elisa lettuce varieties were placed in Petri dishes with water-agar and 1mL Biotrich suspension (0.2 mL L -1), and after 24 hours, on plugs with the Pythium isolate mycelium. The evaluations were done ten days after the incubation at 20 and 31°C. In vivo experiments were carried out during the spring and summer, using the Nutrient Film Technique (NFT) system, in a completely randomized design, following a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement, as well: two varieties; pathogen abscence or presence; and with or without Biotrich addition. At the end of cultivation, the fresh and dry weight of shoots and roots were analyzed. In vitro, P. aphanidermatum had increased aggressiveness at 31°C. However, no pathogenicity was observed in vivo. Generally, Biotrich did not promote plant growth; however, it was effective in controlling the pathogen in vitro. Pythium aphanidermatum is pathogenic to lettuce varieties Vera and Elisa, at 20 and 31°C, and Biotrich is effective for its control at these temperatures.