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Barreta J.,Institute Biologia Molecular y Biotecnologia | Barreta J.,University of León | Iniguez V.,Institute Biologia Molecular y Biotecnologia | Saavedra V.,Technical University of Oruro | And 5 more authors.
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2012

We have examined the genetic diversity and population structure of 149 Bolivian alpacas from eight different locations in Bolivia. The analysis of 22 microsatellite loci revealed high levels of genetic diversity, similar to the results reported in other alpaca populations. This high genetic variability was sustained by the identification of a total of 258 alleles; we identified between 4 and 18 alleles per locus with high levels of observed heterozygosity that ranged from 0.611 to 0.696. The inbreeding coefficients (Fis) were positive and significantly different from zero for all of the populations except for Turco. The genetic differentiation between populations (Fst) was low to moderate with pair-wise Fst estimates ranging from 0.008 for the Curahuara-Cosapa pair, to 0.077 for the Poopó-Ayopaya and Poopó-Ulla Ulla pairs. The analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) indicated that the total variability observed between different populations was 3.86%, whereas 96.14% of the variation was found within the populations. The population structure analysis revealed that the eight studied populations could be assigned to five differentiated clusters. In agreement with the factorial analysis of correspondence, and supported through a bootstrapping analysis to adjust for differences in population sample size, this analysis suggested a genetic isolation of the Poopó population and the influence of the Turco population on the populations linked to the Cochabamba and the Pacajes-Sajama alpaquero systems. The Ulla Ulla population showed a clear subdivision into two clusters; in addition, these two clusters had an influence on the Challapata population and less impact on the rest of the populations. The Cosapa, Lagunas and Curahuara populations showed a clear common genetic background, whereas the Ayopaya population was influenced by the five defined clusters. Despite some sampling limitations and the need of confirming the results reported here through larger datasets, overall, this study provides the first survey of the genetic diversity in Bolivian alpaca populations, which may be of great value for the development of appropriate breeding strategies for these populations. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Barreta J.,University of León | Barreta J.,Institute Biologia Molecular y Biotecnologia | Gutierrez-Gil B.,University of León | Iniguez V.,Institute Biologia Molecular y Biotecnologia | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics | Year: 2013

South American camelids (SACs) have a major role in the maintenance and potential future of rural Andean human populations. More than 60% of the 3.7 million llamas living worldwide are found in Bolivia. Due to the lack of studies focusing on genetic diversity in Bolivian llamas, this analysis investigates both the genetic diversity and structure of 12 regional groups of llamas that span the greater part of the range of distribution for this species in Bolivia. The analysis of 42 microsatellite markers in the considered regional groups showed that, in general, there were high levels of polymorphism (a total of 506 detected alleles; average PIC across per marker: 0.66), which are comparable with those reported for other populations of domestic SACs. The estimated diversity parameters indicated that there was high intrapopulational genetic variation (average number of alleles and average expected heterozygosity per marker: 12.04 and 0.68, respectively) and weak genetic differentiation among populations (FST range: 0.003-0.052). In agreement with these estimates, Bolivian llamas showed a weak genetic structure and an intense gene flow between all the studied regional groups, which is due to the exchange of reproductive males between the different flocks. Interestingly, the groups for which the largest pairwise FST estimates were observed, Sud Lípez and Nor Lípez, showed a certain level of genetic differentiation that is probably due to the pattern of geographic isolation and limited communication infrastructures of these southern localities. Overall, the population parameters reported here may serve as a reference when establishing conservation policies that address Bolivian llama populations. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

Rollano Penaloza O.M.,Linköping University | Rollano Penaloza O.M.,Institute Biologia Molecular y Biotecnologia | Lewandowska M.,Pomeranian Medical University | Stetefeld J.,University of Manitoba | And 9 more authors.
Trends in Molecular Medicine | Year: 2014

Therapies that selectively target cancer cells for death have been the center of intense research recently. One potential therapy may involve apoptin proteins, which are able to induce apoptosis in cancer cells leaving normal cells unharmed. Apoptin was originally discovered in the Chicken anemia virus (CAV); however, human gyroviruses (HGyV) have recently been found that also harbor apoptin-like proteins. Although the cancer cell specific activity of these apoptins appears to be well conserved, the precise functions and mechanisms of action are yet to be fully elucidated. Strategies for both delivering apoptin to treat tumors and disseminating the protein inside the tumor body are now being developed, and have shown promise in preclinical animal studies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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