Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon

Ciudad Real, Spain

Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon

Ciudad Real, Spain

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Hidalgo P.I.,University of León | Ullan R.V.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Albillos S.M.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Montero O.,Institute Biologia y Genetica Molecular | And 4 more authors.
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2014

The PR-toxin is a potent mycotoxin produced by Penicillium roqueforti in moulded grains and grass silages and may contaminate blue-veined cheese. The PR-toxin derives from the 15 carbon atoms sesquiterpene aristolochene formed by the aristolochene synthase (encoded by ari1). We have cloned and sequenced a four gene cluster that includes the ari1 gene from P. roqueforti. Gene silencing of each of the four genes (named prx1 to prx4) resulted in a reduction of 65-75% in the production of PR-toxin indicating that the four genes encode enzymes involved in PR-toxin biosynthesis. Interestingly the four silenced mutants overproduce large amounts of mycophenolic acid, an antitumor compound formed by an unrelated pathway suggesting a cross-talk of PR-toxin and mycophenolic acid production. An eleven gene cluster that includes the above mentioned four prx genes and a 14-TMS drug/H+ antiporter was found in the genome of Penicillium chrysogenum. This eleven gene cluster has been reported to be very poorly expressed in a transcriptomic study of P. chrysogenum genes under conditions of penicillin production (strongly aerated cultures). We found that this apparently silent gene cluster is able to produce PR-toxin in P. chrysogenum under static culture conditions on hydrated rice medium. Noteworthily, the production of PR-toxin was 2.6-fold higher in P. chrysogenum npe10, a strain deleted in the 56.8kb amplifiable region containing the pen gene cluster, than in the parental strain Wisconsin 54-1255 providing another example of cross-talk between secondary metabolite pathways in this fungus. A detailed PR-toxin biosynthesis pathway is proposed based on all available evidence. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Yepes A.,University of Salamanca | Rico S.,University of Salamanca | Rodriguez-Garcia A.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Santamaria R.I.,University of Salamanca | Diaz M.,University of Salamanca
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011

The abundance of two-component systems (TCSs) in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) genome indicates their importance in the physiology of this soil bacteria. Currently, several TCSs have been related to antibiotic regulation, and the purpose in this study was the characterization of five TCSs, selected by sequence homology with the well-known absA1A2 system, that could also be associated with this important process. Null mutants of the five TCSs were obtained and two mutants (ΔSCO1744/1745 and ΔSCO4596/4597/4598) showed significant differences in both antibiotic production and morphological differentiation, and have been renamed as abr (antibiotic regulator). No detectable changes in antibiotic production were found in the mutants in the systems that include the ORFs SCO3638/3639, SCO3640/3641 and SCO2165/2166 in any of the culture conditions assayed. The system SCO1744/1745 (AbrA1/A2) was involved in negative regulation of antibiotic production, and acted also as a negative regulator of the morphological differentiation. By contrast, the system SCO4596/4597/4598 (AbrC1/C2/C3), composed of two histidine kinases and one response regulator, had positive effects on both morphological development and antibiotic production. Microarray analyses of the ΔabrC1/C2/C3 and wild-type transcriptomes revealed downregulation of actII-ORF4 and cdaR genes, the actinorhodin and calcium-dependent antibiotic pathway-specific regulators respectively. These results demonstrated the involvement of these new two-component systems in antibiotic production and morphological differentiation by different approaches. One is a pleiotropic negative regulator: abrA1/A2. The other one is a positive regulator composed of three elements, two histidine kinases and one response regulator: abrC1/C2/C3. © 2011 Yepes et al.


Sola-Landa A.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Rodriguez-Garcia A.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Rodriguez-Garcia A.,University of León | Amin R.,University of Tübingen | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2013

Interaction of regulatory networks is a subject of great interest in systems biology of bacteria. Phosphate control of metabolism in Streptomyces is mediated by the two-component system PhoR-PhoP. Similarly, the utilization of different nitrogen sources is controlled by the regulator GlnR. Transcriptomic and biochemical analysis revealed that glnA (encoding a glutamine synthetase), glnR and other nitrogen metabolism genes are under PhoP control. DNA-binding experiments showed that PhoP binds to other nitrogen-regulated genes (SCO0255, SCO01863 and ureA). Using the glnA promoter as model, we observed that PhoP and GlnR compete for binding to the same promoter region, showing GlnR a higher affinity. Using a total of 14 GlnR-binding sites (50 direct repeat units) we established two information-based models that describe the GlnR box as consisting of two 11-nt direct repeats each with clear differences to PHO box. DNA-binding studies with different mutant sequences of glnA promoter revealed that the sequence recognized by GlnR is found in the coding strand whereas that recognized by PhoP is overlapping in the non-coding strand. In amtB promoter PhoP and GlnR boxes are not totally overlapping and both proteins bind simultaneously. PhoP control of nitrogen metabolism genes helps to balance the cellular P/N equilibrium. © 2012 The Author(s) 2012. Published by Oxford University Press.


Jami M.-S.,University of León | Garcia-Estrada C.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Barreiro C.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Cuadrado A.-A.,University of Oviedo | And 3 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2010

The filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum is well-known by its ability to synthesize β-lactam antibiotics as well as other secondary metabolites. Like other filamentous fungi, this microorganism is an excellent host for secretion of extracellular proteins because of the high capacity of its protein secretion machinery. In this work, we have characterized the extracellular proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. This method allowed the correct identification of 279 spots by peptide mass finger-printing and tandem MS. These 279 spots included 328 correctly identified proteins, which corresponded to 131 different proteins and their isoforms. One hundred and two proteins out of 131 were predicted to contain either classical or nonclassical secretion signal peptide sequences, providing evidence of the authentic extracellular location of these proteins. Proteins with higher representation in the extracellular proteome were those involved in plant cell wall degradation (polygalacturonase, pectate lyase, and glucan 1,3-β-glucosidase), utilization of nutrients (extracellular acid phosphatases and 6-hydroxy-D-nicotine oxidase), and stress response (catalase R). This filamentous fungus also secretes enzymes specially relevant for food industry, such as sulfydryl oxidase, dihydroxy-acid dehydratase, or glucoamylase. The identification of several antigens in the extracellular proteome also highlights the importance of this microorganism as one of the main indoor allergens. Comparison of the extracellular proteome among three strains of P. chrysogenum, the wild-type NRRL 1951, the Wis 54-1255 (an improved, moderate penicillin producer), and the AS-P-78 (a penicillin high-producer), provided important insights to consider improved strains of this filamentous fungus as versatile cell-factories of interest, beyond antibiotic production, for other aspects of white biotechnology. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Garcia-Estrada C.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Martin J.-F.,University of León
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Ripening of blue-veined cheeses, such as the French Bleu and Roquefort, the Italian Gorgonzola, the English Stilton, the Danish Danablu or the Spanish Cabrales, Picón Bejes-Tresviso, and Valdeón, requires the growth and enzymatic activity of the mold Penicillium roqueforti, which is responsible for the characteristic texture, blue-green spots, and aroma of these types of cheeses. This filamentous fungus is able to synthesize different secondary metabolites, including andrastins, mycophenolic acid, and several mycotoxins, such as roquefortines C and D, PR-toxin and eremofortins, isofumigaclavines A and B, and festuclavine. This review provides a detailed description of the main secondary metabolites produced by P. roqueforti in blue cheese, giving a special emphasis to roquefortine, PR-toxin and mycophenolic acid, and their biosynthetic gene clusters and pathways. The knowledge of these clusters and secondary metabolism pathways, together with the ability of P. roqueforti to produce beneficial secondary metabolites, is of interest for commercial purposes. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Martin J.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Garcia-Estrada C.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Kosalkova K.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Ullan R.V.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | And 2 more authors.
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2012

We described previously that an autoinducer molecule, identified as 1,3-diaminopropane (1,3-DAP), is secreted by Penicillium chrysogenum and Acremonium chrysogenum. Using pH-controlled fermentor cultures we have observed in this work that 1,3-DAP and spermidine clearly stimulate the biosynthesis of benzylpenicillin in P. chrysogenum, both in defined and in complex penicillin production media. Both 1,3-DAP and spermidine, but not putrescine (1,4-diaminobutane), produce a drastic increase in the transcript levels of the penicillin biosynthetic genes pcbAB, pcbC and penDE. These polyamines do not affect the expression of the global pH-stress regulator pacC gene, thus excluding that the effect of 1,3-DAP and spermidine is due to a modification of the pH control mechanism. Expression of the three penicillin biosynthetic genes is drastically reduced in a laeA-knock-down mutant of P. chrysogenum, which produces very low levels of benzylpenicillin. Interestingly, 1,3-DAP and spermidine revert the effect of the laeA knock-down mutation, completely restoring the levels of penicillin production. Furthermore, 1,3-DAP and spermidine enhanced the expression of laeA in the parental strain and restored the levels of laeA transcripts in the laeA knock-down mutant. Taken together these results indicate that the stimulatory effect of the inducer molecules 1,3-DAP and spermidine is exerted, at least in part, through the stimulation of the expression of laeA, a global regulator that acts epigenetically on the expression of secondary metabolite genes by heterochromatin reorganization. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Santos-Beneit F.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Martin J.F.,University of León
Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance | Year: 2013

Vancomycin is an essential antibiotic to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Several bacteria show resistance to vancomycin, including the model actinomycete Streptomyces coelicolor. In this study, vancomycin disk diffusion tests were performed to determine vancomycin resistance in S. coelicolor M145 under rich (TSA medium) or defined (MMCGT medium) growth conditions. A vancomycin-susceptible phenotype was observed when the TSA rich medium was used, whereas a resistant phenotype was obtained when the low-phosphate MMCGT medium was used. To identify which component was responsible for the vancomycin-resistant phenotype, all the components of the MMCGT medium were added individually to the TSA medium, and vice versa. Addition of phosphate to the MMCGT medium (the phosphate concentration is much higher in TSA than in MMCGT) produced a vancomycin-susceptible phenotype in MMCGT. Phosphate regulation of vancomycin resistance is not PhoP-dependent since the same minimum inhibitory concentrations were obtained in S. coelicolor parental and ΔphoP mutant strains. This phosphate regulation was not observed in the vancomycinproducer Amycolatopsis orientalis NRRL 2452, which was always resistant both in TSA and MMCGT (with or without phosphate addition) media. On the other hand, other Streptomyces spp. were susceptible to vancomycin in all conditions tested, including Streptomyces toyocaensis, the producer of a glycopeptide antibiotic different from vancomycin. In conclusion, the phosphate concentration clearly affects the resistance of S. coelicolor to vancomycin. © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Jami M.-S.,University of León | Barreiro C.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Garcia-Estrada C.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Martin J.-F.,University of León | Martin J.-F.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon
Molecular and Cellular Proteomics | Year: 2010

Proteomics is a powerful tool to understand the molecular mechanisms causing the production of high penicillin titers by industrial strains of the filamentous fungus Penicillium chrysogenum as the result of strain improvement programs. Penicillin biosynthesis is an excellent model system for many other bioactive microbial metabolites. The recent publication of the P. chrysogenum genome has established the basis to understand the molecular processes underlying penicillin overproduction. We report here the proteome reference map of P. chrysogenum Wisconsin 54-1255 (the genome project reference strain) together with an in-depth study of the changes produced in three different strains of this filamentous fungus during industrial strain improvement. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, peptide mass fingerprinting, and tandem mass spectrometry were used for protein identification. Around 1000 spots were visualized by "blue silver" colloidal Coomassie staining in a non-linear pI range from 3 to 10 with high resolution, which allowed the identification of 950 proteins (549 different proteins and isoforms). Comparison among the cytosolic proteomes of the wild-type NRRL 1951, Wisconsin 54-1255 (an improved, moderate penicillin producer), and AS-P-78 (a penicillin high producer) strains indicated that global metabolic reorganizations occurred during the strain improvement program. The main changes observed in the high producer strains were increases of cysteine biosynthesis (a penicillin precursor), enzymes of the pentose phosphate pathway, and stress response proteins together with a reduction in virulence and in the biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites different from penicillin (pigments and isoflavonoids). In the wild-type strain, we identified enzymes to utilize cellulose, sorbitol, and other carbon sources that have been lost in the high penicillin producer strains. Changes in the levels of a few specific proteins correlated well with the improved penicillin biosynthesis in the high producer strains. These results provide useful information to improve the production of many other bioactive secondary metabolites. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Santos-Beneit F.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Rodriguez-Garcia A.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Rodriguez-Garcia A.,University of León | Martin J.F.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Martin J.F.,University of León
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2011

The afsS gene of several Streptomyces species encodes a small sigma factor-like protein that acts as an activator of several pathway-specific regulatory genes (e.g., actII-ORF4 and redD in Streptomyces coelicolor). The two pleiotropic regulators AfsR and PhoP bind to overlapping sequences in the -35 region of the afsS promoter and control its expression. Using mutated afsS promoters containing specific point mutations in the AfsR and PhoP binding sequences, we proved that the overlapping recognition sequences for AfsR and PhoP are displaced by 1 nucleotide. Different nucleotide positions are important for binding of AfsR or PhoP, as shown by electrophoretic mobility shift assays and by reporter studies using the luxAB gene coupled to the different promoters. Mutant promoter M5 (with a nucleotide change at position 5 of the consensus box) binds AfsR but not PhoP with high affinity (named "superAfsR"). Expression of the afsS gene from this promoter led to overproduction of actinorhodin. Mutant promoter M16 binds PhoP with extremely high affinity ("super-PhoP"). Studies with ΔafsR and ΔphoP mutants (lacking AfsR and PhoP, respectively) showed that both global regulators are competitive transcriptional activators of afsS. AfsR has greater influence on expression of afsS than PhoP, as shown by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR) and promoter reporter (luciferase) studies. These two high-level regulators appear to integrate different nutritional signals (particularly phosphate limitation sensed by PhoR), S-adenosylmethionine, and other still unknown environmental signals (leading to AfsR phosphorylation) for the AfsS-mediated control of biosynthesis of secondary metabolites. © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.


Santos-Beneit F.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Rodriguez-Garcia A.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Rodriguez-Garcia A.,University of León | Martin J.F.,Institute Biotecnologia Of Leon | Martin J.F.,University of León
Molecular Genetics and Genomics | Year: 2013

The absA1-absA2 genes encode a two-component system that negatively regulates the transcription of multiple antibiotic gene clusters of Streptomyces coelicolor. The microarray dataset time series of a S. coelicolor M145 bioreactor culture indicated that the transcription values of absA2 were approximately four times higher than those of absA1 throughout the time course of the culture. The co-transcription of absA1 and absA2 genes has been previously shown, although an independent absA2 promoter was not detected. In this study, we show by different technical approaches that the absA1-absA2 operon is transcribed from at least two promoters, the first producing a read-through transcript that includes both absA1 and absA2 genes and the second including only the absA2 gene. An absA2 mRNA 5′ end was mapped by primer extension and confirmed as TSS by deep sequencing in combination with TEX. Promoter-probe analyses detected promoter activity in both the absA1 and absA2 upstream regions. The absA2 upstream region showed a higher promoter activity, at least sevenfold higher than that of absA1. Furthermore, the absA2 gene may contain at least two additional promoters as shown by deep sequencing analyses. All together this work contributes to the understanding of the complex transcriptional regulation of these antibiotic regulators genes in S. coelicolor. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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