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Caxias do Sul, Brazil

Nahirnak V.,Institute Biotecnologia
Plant signaling & behavior | Year: 2012

Snakin/GASA proteins are widely distributed among plant species. They are expressed in different plant organs with high tissue and temporal specificity, and their subcellular localization varies among the different members. Interestingly, all of them maintain 12 cysteines of the C-terminus in highly conserved positions of the aminoacid sequences that are essential for their biochemical activity and probably responsible for their protein structure. Despite their common features, their functions are not completely elucidated and little is known about their mode of action. This review focuses on the current knowledge about this intriguing family of peptides and advances comprising gene regulation analyses, expression pattern studies and phenotypic characterization of mutants and transgenic plants. Furthermore, we discuss the roles of Snakin/GASA proteins in several aspects of plant development, plant responses to biotic or abiotic stress and their participation in hormone crosstalk and redox homeostasis.

Centeno D.C.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | Osorio S.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | Nunes-Nesi A.,Max Planck Institute of Molecular Plant Physiology | Bertolo A.L.F.,Cornell University | And 11 more authors.
Plant Cell | Year: 2011

Despite the fact that the organic acid content of a fruit is regarded as one of its most commercially important quality traits when assessed by the consumer, relatively little is known concerning the physiological importance of organic acid metabolism for the fruit itself. Here, we evaluate the effect of modifying malate metabolism in a fruit-specific manner, by reduction of the activities of either mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase or fumarase, via targeted antisense approaches in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). While these genetic perturbations had relatively little effect on the total fruit yield, they had dramatic consequences for fruit metabolism, as well as unanticipated changes in postharvest shelf life and susceptibility to bacterial infection. Detailed characterization suggested that the rate of ripening was essentially unaltered but that lines containing higher malate were characterized by lower levels of transitory starch and a lower soluble sugars content at harvest, whereas those with lower malate contained higher levels of these carbohydrates. Analysis of the activation state of ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase revealed that it correlated with the accumulation of transitory starch. Taken together with the altered activation state of the plastidial malate dehydrogenase and the modified pigment biosynthesis of the transgenic lines, these results suggest that the phenotypes are due to an altered cellular redox status. The combined data reveal the importance of malate metabolism in tomato fruit metabolism and development and confirm the importance of transitory starch in the determination of agronomic yield in this species. © American Society of Plant Biologists.

Bernal D.,University of Valencia | Trelis M.,University of Valencia | Montaner S.,University of Valencia | Cantalapiedra F.,University of Valencia | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2014

With the aim of characterizing the molecules involved in the interaction of Dicrocoelium dendriticum adults and the host, we have performed proteomic analyses of the external surface of the parasite using the currently available datasets including the transcriptome of the related species Echinostoma caproni. We have identified 182 parasite proteins on the outermost surface of D. dendriticum. The presence of exosome-like vesicles in the ESP of D. dendriticum and their components has also been characterized. Using proteomic approaches, we have characterized 84 proteins in these vesicles. Interestingly, we have detected miRNA in D. dendriticum exosomes, thus representing the first report of miRNA in helminth exosomes. Biological significance: In order to identify potential targets for intervention against parasitic helminths, we have analyzed the surface of the parasitic helminth Dicrocoelium dendriticum. Along with the proteomic analyses of the outermost layer of the parasite, our work describes the molecular characterization of the exosomes of D. dendriticum. Our proteomic data confirm the improvement of protein identification from "non-model organisms" like helminths, when using different search engines against a combination of available databases. In addition, this work represents the first report of miRNAs in parasitic helminth exosomes. These vesicles can pack specific proteins and RNAs providing stability and resistance to RNAse digestion in body fluids, and provide a way to regulate host-parasite interplay. The present data should provide a solid foundation for the development of novel methods to control this non-model organism and related parasites. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Proteomics of non-model organisms. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Barrero A.F.,Institute Biotecnologia | Herrador M.M.,Institute Biotecnologia | Arteaga P.,Institute Biotecnologia | Arteaga J.F.,University of Huelva | Arteaga A.F.,University of Granada
Molecules | Year: 2012

Communic acids are diterpenes with labdane skeletons found in many plant species, mainly conifers, predominating in the genus Juniperus (fam. Cupresaceae). In this review we briefly describe their distribution and different biological activities (anti- bacterial, antitumoral, hypolipidemic, relaxing smooth muscle, etc.). This paper also includes a detailed explanation of their use as chiral building blocks for the synthesis of bioactive natural products. Among other uses, communic acids have proven useful as chirons for the synthesis of quassinoids (formal), abietane antioxidants, ambrox and other perfume fixatives, podolactone herbicides, etc., featuring shorter and more efficient processes.

Geisen S.,University of Granada | Barturen G.,University of Granada | Alganza A.M.,University of Granada | Hackenberg M.,University of Granada | And 3 more authors.
Nucleic Acids Research | Year: 2014

The updated release of 'NGSmethDB' (http://bioinfo2.ugr.es/NGSmethDB) is a repository for single-base whole-genome methylome maps for the best-assembled eukaryotic genomes. Short-read data sets from NGS bisulfite-sequencing projects of cell lines, fresh and pathological tissues are first pre-processed and aligned to the corresponding reference genome, and then the cytosine methylation levels are profiled. One major improvement is the application of a unique bioinformatics protocol to all data sets, thereby assuring the comparability of all values with each other. We implemented stringent quality controls to minimize important error sources, such as sequencing errors, bisulfite failures, clonal reads or single nucleotide variants (SNVs). This leads to reliable and high-quality methylomes, all obtained under uniform settings. Another significant improvement is the detection in parallel of SNVs, which might be crucial for many downstream analyses (e.g. SNVs and differential-methylation relationships). A next-generation methylation browser allows fast and smooth scrolling and zooming, thus speeding data download/upload, at the same time requiring fewer server resources. Several data mining tools allow the comparison/retrieval of methylation levels in different tissues or genome regions. NGSmethDB methylomes are also available as native tracks through a UCSC hub, which allows comparison with a wide range of third-party annotations, in particular phenotype or disease annotations. © 2013 The Author(s). Published by Oxford University Press.

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