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Doubkova M.,Klinika Nemoci Plicnich | Uher M.,Institute Biostatistiky a Analyz LF MU Brno | Bartos V.,Plicni Klinika LF UK a FN Hradec Kralove | Sterclova M.,Pneumologicka Klinika 1 | And 14 more authors.
Casopis Lekaru Ceskych | Year: 2016

Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare, progressive and usually fatal form of idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. IPF is characterized by failure of alveolar re-epithelization, persistence of fibroblasts, deposition of extracellular matrix, and distortion of lung architecture, which ultimately results in respiratory failure. We analysed 202 consecutive patients with IPF diagnosed at the Departments of Pulmonary Diseases and Tuberculosis in the Czech Republic, who they were included in the nationwide Czech IPF registry. Our aim was to determine prognostic factors of IPF and outcome of the disease. There were 129 males and 73 females who were the median age 67 years. IPF was biopsy-proven in 66 (33 %) of patients. Median time from the first symptom to diagnosis was 12 months. Diagnosis was made in 57 patients (28.3 %) within 6 months from the onset of respiratory symptoms. 8 (4 %) patients had an acute exacerbation during the course of the disease. In uniparametric (univariate) analysis as prognostic factors associated with poorer survival were found: higher age, higher degree dyspnea scores, clubbing fingers, comorbidities (arterial hypertension, osteoporosis), patients without histology biopsy, and bronchoalveolar increased neutrophil count. We found these positive prognostic factors: higher levels of VC (vital capacity), TLC (total lung capacity) and DLCO (diffusing capacity for carbon monooxide). In multiparametric (multivariate) analysis as prognostic factors associated with mortality were found: higher age, higher degree of dyspnoe score. Increased lymphocytes in bronchoalveolar fluid, higher level of VC a DLCO were associated with better survival. There was no difference in survival of patients by sex, by smoking status. No significant difference in survival rates was found between IPF with and without emphysema, between the extent of fibrosis on HRCT (high resolution computed tomography) of thorax and mortality. Median survival was 51.6 months. 58 (28.7 %) patients died. The most frequent reason of dead was IPF progression with respiratory failure.

Snejdrlova M.,Centrum Preventivni Kardiologie VFN Prague | Ceska R.,Centrum Preventivni Kardiologie VFN Prague | Janickova-Zd'arska D.,Interni Klinika 2. LF UK a FN Motol | Honek P.,Vsobecna Zdravotni Pojistovna Ceske Republiky | And 5 more authors.
Vnitrni Lekarstvi | Year: 2015

Diabetes mellitus and in particular type 2 diabetes mellitus is one of the most important risk factors of cardiovascular disease. To influence cardiovascular risk there is enormous important not only positive influence of glycemia, but also the treatment of diabetic dyslipidemia and hypertension. The present work provides an analysis of lipid-lowering and antihypertensive therapy for all diabetics registered with General Health Insurance Company in the period 2010-2013. In this time 866 570 patients with diabetes mellitus registered with General Health Insurance Company were treated, the majority of them were diabetics independent on insulin. Approximately half of the patients were observed by dialectologists and half of them by the doctors of other specialization. Out of antihypertensive medication, patients were most often treated by drugs that affect the renin-angiotensin system, as well as beta-blockers and diuretics. Prescription of the lipid-lowering therapy, especially prescription of statins, in accordance with the guidelines, is increasing, but remains insufficient (at 2013 43.6% diabetics treated by dialectologists and 51.3% diabetics treated by GP's didn't have lipid lowering therapy). Inadequate use of combination lipid-lowering therapy was recorded too, still represented mainly by combination of statin and fibrate, but in coming years we expect (based on the positive results of the subanalysis IMPROVE-IT study), an increase of combination therapy statin and ezetimibe.

Introduction: The PROROK project (Prospective observation project focusing on the relevance of the difference between fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels for the estimation of success of type 2 diabetes therapy) had a character of non-interventional, prospective, multicentric observation study lasting 6 months, whose goal was to quantify the relevance of the difference between fasting and postprandial blood glucose levels to the success of the treatment with GLP1 receptor agonists, resp. the treatment with basal, premixed insulin, or a combination of basal-bolus insulin. Physicians chose a therapy for patients with insufficiently compensated problems as they considered appropriate; 4 972 patients were included. Goal: Evaluation of the intervention results for the patients included in the PROROK observation project with a focus on the choice of therapy by the treating diabetologist after 6 months of observation. Results: An average improvement of the glycated hemoglobin values in the whole cohort reached 1.6%, the median of the resulting glycated hemoglobin reached 5.9% and 5.8% resp. (basal insulin). Statistically significant was the change in the median weight in the cohort treated with GLP-1 receptor agonists, from 105 kg to 100 kg; this did not significantly change in the other cohorts. The change of waist circumference over time in all patients and in the individual cohorts was consistent with the change of weight. The median change of fasting blood glucose levels in the whole cohort was -1.7 mmol/l after 3 months and -2.4 mmol/l (p < 0.001) after 6 months. The greatest absolute decrease was recorded in the cohort treated with basal insulin (-2.8 mmol/l). The median change of postprandial blood glucose levels was -2.4 mmol/l after 3 months and -3.3 mmol/l (p < 0.001) after 6 months. The greatest absolute decrease was recorded in the branch treated with a combination of prandial and basal insulin (-3.9 mmol/l). All differences p < 0.001. Conclusion: The choice of therapy in the PROROK project is in agreement with the basic findings in pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes and with the options of an individually chosen targeted intervention involving antidiabetic therapy. The results of the six-month observation have proven the individual choice of therapy correct. In the cohort of diabetic patients differing at the beginning in weight, waist circumference, fasting blood glucose and the difference between fasting and postprandial glucose levels, an individually chosen therapy led to the same final result, while an absolute change in the followed parameters differed in the individual groups.

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