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Cecchetto G.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Richero M.,University of the Republic of Uruguay | Oestreicher N.,University Paris - Sud | Oestreicher N.,University of Caen Lower Normandy | And 5 more authors.
Fungal Genetics and Biology | Year: 2012

UaY is the specific ZnII2Cys6 transcriptional activator of the purine utilisation pathway in Aspergillus nidulans. Previous work has determined the consensus binding sequence by EMSA and foot-printing. We determine here that it binds as a dimer to its cognate CGG-N6-CCG sites. We identify the uaY109 mutation, which has been shown to affect differentially the expression of a number of UaY-regulated genes, as a F112I substitution in the DNA-binding motif dimerisation domain. We isolated back mutants, revertants carrying different residues at the same position (I112N and I112M) and intragenic suppressors mapping in the first loop of the Zn cluster (N75T and N75K). We have analysed the original mutant and its revertants by growth tests and by their effects on the mRNA steady states of five UaY-regulated genes. We have determined the effect of the different mutations on UaY dimerisation, on the apparent Kdiss of the UaY DNA-binding domain to appropriate DNA sequences and on the methylation interference pattern. We have attempted to rationalise these phenotypes by modelling the UaY DNA binding domain on the structure of the highly similar Ppr1p. However, modelling of the wild-type and mutant proteins provides only a partial explanation for the observed phenotypes. This suggests that the mutated residues may have other roles besides the obvious ones inferred from their position in the sequence and by the similarity of UaY and Ppr1p. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Credali A.,University of the Basque Country | Credali A.,University of Aarhus | Garcia-Calderon M.,University of the Basque Country | Dam S.,University of Aarhus | And 7 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2013

The physiological role of K+-dependent and K+- independent asparaginases in plants remains unclear, and the contribution from individual isoforms during development is poorly understood. We have used reverse genetics to assess the phenotypes produced by the deficiency of K +-dependent NSE1 asparaginase in the model legume Lotus japonicus. For this purpose, four different mutants were identified by TILLING and characterized, two of which affected the structure and function of the asparaginase molecule and caused asparagine accumulation. Plant growth and total seed weight of mature mutant seeds as well as the level of both legumin and convicilin seed storage proteins were affected in the mutants. The mutants isolated in the present work are the first of their type in legumes and have enabled us to demonstrate the importance of asparagine and K+- dependent NSE1 asparaginase for nitrogen remobilization and seed production in L. japonicus plants. © The Author 2012. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved.

Perez-Perez M.E.,Institute Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis | Crespo J.L.,Institute Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis
Autophagy | Year: 2010

Degradation and recycling of intracellular components via autophagy is conserved among eukaryotes. This catabolic process is mediated by autophagy-related (ATG) proteins, which have been identified in different systems including yeasts, mammals and plants. The genome of the model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains homologues to yeast and plant ATG genes although autophagy has not been previously described in this organism. In our study, we report the molecular characterization of autophagy in Chlamydomonas. Using the ATG8 protein from Chlamydomonas as a molecular autophagy marker, we demonstrate that this degradative process is induced in stationary cells or under different stresses such as nutrient limitation, oxidative stress or the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Our results also indicate that TOR, a major regulator of autophagy, inhibits this process in Chlamydomonas. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.

Scheiba R.M.,Institute Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis | De Opakua A.I.,CIC Biomagune | Diaz-Quintana A.,Institute Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis | Cruz-Gallardo I.,Institute Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis | And 6 more authors.
RNA Biology | Year: 2014

Human antigen R (HuR) is a 32 kDa protein with 3 RNA Recognition Motifs (RRMs), which bind to Adenylate and uridylate Rich Elements (AREs) of mRNAs. Whereas the N-terminal and central domains (RRM1 and RRM2) are essential for AREs recognition, little is known on the C-terminal RRM3 beyond its implication in HuR oligomerization and apoptotic signaling. We have developed a detergent-based strategy to produce soluble RRM3 for structural studies. We have found that it adopts the typical RRM fold, does not interact with the RRM1 and RRM2 modules, and forms dimers in solution. Our NMR measurements, combined with Molecular Dynamics simulations and Analytical Ultracentrifugation experiments, show that the protein dimerizes through a helical region that contains the conserved W261 residue. We found that HuR RRM3 binds to 5′-mer U-rich RNA stretches through the solvent exposed side of its β-sheet, located opposite to the dimerization site. Upon mimicking phosphorylation by the S318D replacement, RRM3 mutant shows less ability to recognize RNA due to an electrostatic repulsion effect with the phosphate groups. Our study brings new insights of HuR RRM3 as a domain involved in protein oligomerization and RNA interaction, both functions regulated by 2 surfaces on opposite sides of the RRM domain. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Bahaji A.,Public University of Navarra | Bahaji A.,Iden Biotechnology S.L. | Li J.,Public University of Navarra | Ovecka M.,Public University of Navarra | And 10 more authors.
Plant and Cell Physiology | Year: 2011

It is widely considered that ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGP) is the sole source of ADP-glucose linked to bacterial glycogen and plant starch biosynthesis. Genetic evidence that bacterial glycogen biosynthesis occurs solely by the AGP pathway has been obtained with glgC- AGP mutants. However, recent studies have shown that (i) these mutants can accumulate high levels of ADP-glucose and glycogen, and (ii) there are sources other than GlgC, of ADP-glucose linked to glycogen biosynthesis. In Arabidopsis, evidence showing that starch biosynthesis occurs solely by the AGP pathway has been obtained with the starchless adg1-1 and aps1 AGP mutants. However, mounting evidence has been compiled previewing the occurrence of more than one important ADP-glucose source in plants. In attempting to solve this 20-year-old controversy, in this work we carried out a judicious characterization of both adg1-1 and aps1. Both mutants accumulated wild-type (WT) ADP-glucose and approximately 2 of WT starch, as further confirmed by confocal fluorescence microscopic observation of iodine-stained leaves and of leaves expressing granule-bound starch synthase fused with GFP. Introduction of the sex1 mutation affecting starch breakdown into adg1-1 and aps1 increased the starch content to 8-10 of the WT starch. Furthermore, aps1 leaves exposed to microbial volatiles for 10 h accumulated approximately 60 of the WT starch. aps1 plants expressing the bacterial ADP-glucose hydrolase EcASPP in the plastid accumulated normal ADP-glucose and reduced starch when compared with aps1 plants, whereas aps1 plants expressing EcASPP in the cytosol showed reduced ADP-glucose and starch. Moreover, aps1 plants expressing bacterial AGP in the plastid accumulated WT starch and ADP-glucose. The overall data show that (i) there occur important source(s), other than AGP, of ADP-glucose linked to starch biosynthesis, and (ii) AGP is a major determinant of starch accumulation but not of intracellular ADP-glucose content in Arabidopsis. © 2011 The Author.

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