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Ocampo-Sosa A.A.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla Ifimav | Cabot G.,Hospital Universitario Son Espases | Rodriguez C.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla Ifimav | Roman E.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla Ifimav | And 12 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

We investigated the presence of OprD mutations in 60 strains of metallo-β-lactamase-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa intermediately susceptible (IS [n = 12]; MIC = 8 μg/ml) or susceptible (S [n = 48]; MICs ≤ 1 to 4 μg/ml) to imipenem and/or meropenem that were isolated from patients with bacteremia in order to evaluate their impact on carbapenem susceptibility profiles. The presence of mutations in oprD was detected by sequencing analysis. OprD expression was assessed by both outer membrane protein (OMP) analysis and real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Fourteen (23%) isolates had an OprD identical to that of PAO1, and OprD modifications were detected in 46 isolates (77%). Isolates were classified as OprD "full-length types" (T1 [n = 40, including both wild-type OprD and variants showing several polymorphisms]) and OprD "deficient types" (T2 [n = 3 for OprD frameshift mutations] and T3 [n = 17 for premature stop codons in oprD]). RT-PCR showed that 5 OprD type T1 isolates presented reduced transcription of oprD (0.1- to 0.4-fold compared to PAO1), while oprD levels increased more than 2-fold over that seen with PAO1 in 4 OprD type T1 isolates. A total of 50% of the isolates belonging to OprD "deficient types" were susceptible to both carbapenems, and 40% were susceptible to meropenem and intermediately susceptible to imipenem. Only one isolate (5%) within this group was intermediately susceptible to both carbapenems, and one (5%) was susceptible to imipenem and intermediately susceptible to meropenem. We concluded that OprD inactivating mutations in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa are not restricted only to carbapenem-resistant isolates but are also found in isolates with imipenem or meropenem MICs of only 0.06 to 4 μg/ml. Copyright © 2012, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Campo Esquisabel A.B.,Servicio de Microbiologia | Campo Esquisabel A.B.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Rodriguez M.C.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla | Rodriguez M.C.,Institute Biomedicina Y Biotecnologia Of Cantabria Ibbtec | And 3 more authors.
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2011

The MIC of cefepime determined with the MicroScan WalkAway system was ≥2 times higher than that of ceftazidime for 105 clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This phenotype was confirmed by reference microdilution in 68 (64.8%) isolates, corresponding to 48 different rep-PCR patterns. The PSE-1 blactamase was identified in only 13.2% isolates, while oxacillinases were not identified in any of the 68 isolates. The level of expression of mexB, mexD and mexY was determined by real-time RT-PCR in eight clinical isolates representative of the different clones and patterns of susceptibility to cefepime and ceftazidime and in strain PAO1. All clinical strains overexpressed the mexY gene (18.3- to 152.7-fold in comparison with PAO1), although there was not a linear relationship between MIC of cefepime and level of mexY expression. Five of these strains contained mutations in the regulatory gene mexZ. mexD and mexB were also overexpressed in three and two isolates, respectively. Different mutations were observed in the regulatory genes nalD, mexR, nfxB and nalC. In conclusion, we have documented in our institution a polyclonal spread of P. aeruginosa with higher MICs of cefepime than of ceftazidime, related to overexpression of MexXY-OprM, coincident in some isolates with the production of PSE-1, MexCD-OprJ or MexAB-OprM. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Sanchez-Juan P.,University of Cantabria | Bishop M.T.,University of Edinburgh | Aulchenko Y.S.,Erasmus Medical Center | Brandel J.-P.,APHP | And 18 more authors.
Neurobiology of Aging | Year: 2012

The aim of our study was to discover genomic variations related to variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) susceptibility. A genome-wide association analysis with most vCJD samples available in the world was performed. A series of 93 vCJD UK patients and 1504 UK controls were included in the discovery stage. Our best findings were replicated in an independent population of 22 UK and 20 French vCJD cases. Post hoc analysis to assess our main results included 5711 French controls, 445 Dutch controls, and 446 sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) cases. We found 2 genome wide significant variants tagging PRNP: rs6107516 (p = 2.6 × 10-18) and rs2065706 (p = 8.8 × 10-14). Two other single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs4921542 and rs7565981) were successfully replicated in independent samples and reached genome-wide significance after pooling discovery and replication populations. Rs4921542 (p = 1.6 × 10-8) is an intronic variant in the myotubularin related protein 7 gene (MTMR7), which is specifically expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) and dephosphorylates phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate and inositol 1,3-bisphosphate. Rs7565981 (p = 4.2 × 10-8) is in an intergenic region upstream of the neuronal PAS (per-ARNT-sim) domain-containing protein 2 gene (NPAS2), a regulatory gene belonging to a family of transcription factors that has been implicated in memory, seasonal affective disorder, and the molecular clock in the mammalian forebrain. A proxy of rs7565981 (rs17024792; r2 = 1.0) has been found to regulate the phospholipase C-delta-3 gene (PLCD3) in trans. This enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate. Our study reveals 2 new genome-wide significant markers for vCJD outside PRNP and provides evidence supporting a role of the phosphatidylinositol pathway in vCJD susceptibility. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

Albajar M.,Institute Biomedicina Y Biotecnologia Of Cantabria Ibbtec | Albajar M.,Hospital Universitario Marques Of Valdecilla Ifimav | Gomez-Casares M.T.,University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria | Llorca J.,University of Cantabria | And 11 more authors.
Molecular Cancer Research | Year: 2011

Untreated chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) progresses from chronic phase to blastic crisis (BC). Increased genomic instability, deregulated proliferation, and loss of differentiation appear associated to BC, but the molecular alterations underlying the progression of CML are poorly characterized. MYC oncogene is frequently deregulated in human cancer, often associated with tumor progression. Genomic instability and induction of aberrant DNA replication are described as effects of MYC. In this report, we studied MYC activities in CML cell lines with conditional MYC expression with and without exposure to imatinib, the front-line drug in CML therapy. In cells with conditional MYC expression, MYC did not rescue the proliferation arrest mediated by imatinib but provoked aberrant DNA synthesis and accumulation of cells with 4C content. We studied MYC mRNA expression in 66 CML patients at different phases of the disease, and we found that MYC expression was higher in CML patients at diagnosis than control bone marrows or in patients responding to imatinib. Further, high MYC levels at diagnosis correlated with a poor response to imatinib. MYC expression did not directly correlate with BCR-ABL levels in patients treated with imatinib. Overall our study suggests that, as in other tumor models, MYC-induced aberrant DNA synthesis in CML cells is consistent with MYC overexpression in untreated CML patients and nonresponding patients and supports a role for MYC in CML progression, possibly through promotion of genomic instability. ©2011 AACR.

Calvo F.,Institute Biomedicina Y Biotecnologia Of Cantabria Ibbtec | Calvo F.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Sanz-Moreno V.,Cancer Research UK Research Institute | Sanz-Moreno V.,Kings College London | And 5 more authors.
Nature Cell Biology | Year: 2011

Individual tumour cells move in three-dimensional environments with either a rounded or an elongated mesenchymalmorphology. These two modes of movement are tightly regulated by Rho family GTPases: elongated movement requires activation of Rac1, whereas rounded/amoeboid movement engages specific Cdc42 and Rho signalling pathways. In siRNA screens targeting the genes encoding guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), we found that the Ras GEF RasGRF2 regulates conversion between elongated- and rounded-type movement. RasGRF2 suppresses rounded movement by inhibiting the activation of Cdc42 independently of its capacity to activate Ras. RasGRF2 and RasGRF1 directly bind to Cdc42, outcompeting Cdc42 GEFs, thereby preventing Cdc42 activation. By this mechanism, RasGRFs regulate other Cdc42-mediated cellular processes such as the formation of actin spikes, transformation and invasion in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate a role for RasGRF GEFs as negative regulators of Cdc42 activation. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

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