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Vitoria I.,Hospital La Fe | Dalmau J.,Hospital La Fe | Ribes C.,Hospital La Fe | Rausell D.,Hospital La Fe | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2013

We report citrin deficiency in a neonatal non-East-Asian patient, the ninth Caucasian reported with this disease. The association of intrahepatic cholestasis, galactosuria, very high alpha-fetoprotein and increased plasma and urine citrulline, tyrosine, methionine and threonine levels suggested citrin deficiency. Identification of a protein-truncating mutation (c.1078C. >. T; p.Arg360*) in the SLC25A13 gene confirmed the diagnosis. An immediate response to a high-protein, lactose-free, low-carbohydrate formula was observed. Our report illustrates the need for awareness on citrin deficiency in Western countries. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Diez-Fernandez C.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Of The Csic | Hu L.,University of Zürich | Cervera J.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Of The Csic | Cervera J.,Del Institute Salud Carlos III | And 3 more authors.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism | Year: 2014

Carbamoyl phosphate synthetase 1 deficiency (CPS1D) is an inborn error of the urea cycle that is due to mutations in the CPS1 gene. In the first large repertory of mutations found in CPS1D, a small CPS1 domain of unknown function (called the UFSD) was found to host missense changes with high frequency, despite the fact that this domain does not host substrate-binding or catalytic machinery. We investigate here by in vitro expression studies using baculovirus/insect cells the reasons for the prominence of the UFSD in CPS1D, as well as the disease-causing roles and pathogenic mechanisms of the mutations affecting this domain. All but three of the 18 missense changes found thus far mapping in this domain in CPS1D patients drastically decreased the yield of pure CPS1, mainly because of decreased enzyme solubility, strongly suggesting misfolding as a major determinant of the mutations negative effects. In addition, the majority of the mutations also decreased from modestly to very drastically the specific activity of the fraction of the enzyme that remained soluble and that could be purified, apparently because they decreased Vmax. Substantial although not dramatic increases in Km values for the substrates or for N-acetyl-L-glutamate were observed for only five mutations. Similarly, important thermal stability decreases were observed for three mutations. The results indicate a disease-causing role for all the mutations, due in most cases to the combined effects of the low enzyme level and the decreased activity. Our data strongly support the value of the present expression system for ascertaining the disease-causing potential of CPS1 mutations, provided that the CPS1 yield is monitored. The observed effects of the mutations have been rationalized on the basis of an existing structural model of CPS1. This model shows that the UFSD, which is in the middle of the 1462-residue multidomain CPS1 protein, plays a key integrating role for creating the CPS1 multidomain architecture leading us to propose here a denomination of "Integrating Domain" for this CPS1 region. The majority of these 18 mutations distort the interaction of this domain with other CPS1 domains, in many cases by causing improper folding of structural elements of the Integrating Domain that play key roles in these interactions. © 2014 Elsevier Inc.

Forcada-Nadal A.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Of The Csic | Forchhammer K.,University of Tübingen | Rubio V.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Of The Csic | Rubio V.,Research Center Biomedica en Red Sobre Enfermedades Raras Del Institute Salud Carlos
FEBS Letters | Year: 2014

Surface plasmon resonance monitoring of the binding of transcription factors cAMP receptor protein (CRP) and nitrogen control factor of cyanobacteria (NtcA) from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 to promoter fragments of glnA, glnN (NtcA regulon) and cccS (CRP regulon), revealed exclusive CRP binding to cccS, whereas NtcA was bound to all three promoters with different affinities, which were strongly increased by the NtcA activator 2-oxoglutarate. Effective NtcA affinity for 2-oxoglutarate varied with the promoter. High-affinity promoters and the NtcA-coactivating protein PII-interacting protein X (PipX) increased NtcA affinity towards 2-oxoglutarate, suggesting PipX-stabilization of the 2-oxoglutarate-bound NtcA conformation. PipX binding to NtcA required 2-oxoglutarate and was much tighter (Kd85 nM) than to the PipX-sequestering PII protein. NtcA appears to require more strongly PipX and 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) for estimulating gene expression at promoters having "imperfect" NtcA binding sites. © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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