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Megias D.,Confocal Microscopy Unit | Bravo J.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic
Journal of Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2010

Sorting nexin 6 (SNX6), a predominantly cytoplasmic protein involved in intracellular trafficking of membrane receptors, was identified as a TGF-β family interactor. However, apart from being a component of the Retromer, little is known about SNX6 cellular functions. Pim-1-dependent SNX6 nuclear translocation has been reported suggesting a putative nuclear role for SNX6. Here, we describe a previously non-reported association of SNX6 with breast cancer metastasis suppressor 1 (BRMS1) protein detected by a yeast two-hybrid screening. The interaction can be reconstituted in vitro and further FRET analysis confirmed the novel interaction. Additionally, we identified their coiled-coil domains as the minimal binding motives required for interaction. Since BRMS1 has been shown to repress transcription, we sought the ability of SNX6 to interfere with this nuclear activity. Using a standard gene reporter assay, we observed that SNX6 increases BRMS1-dependent transcriptional repression. Moreover, over-expression of SNX6 was capable of diminishing trans-activation in a dose-dependent manner. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.


Fernandez-Alvarez A.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Alvarez M.S.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Cucarella C.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Casado M.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Casado M.,CIBER ISCIII
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2010

Insulin-induced gene 2 (INSIG2) and its homolog INSIG1 encode closely related endoplasmic reticulum proteins that regulate the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element-binding proteins, transcription factors that activate the synthesis of cholesterol and fatty acids in animal cells. Several studies have been carried out to identify INSIG2 genetic variants associated with metabolic diseases. However, few data have been published regarding the regulation of INSIG2 gene expression. Two Insig2 transcripts have been described in rodents through the use of different promoters that produce different noncoding first exons that splice into a common second exon. Herein we report the cloning and characterization of the human INSIG2 promoter and the detection of an INSIG2-specific transcript homologous to the Insig2b mouse variant in human liver. Deletion analyses on 3 kb of 5′-flanking DNA of the human INSIG2 gene revealed the functional importance of a 350-bp region upstream of the transcription start site. Mutated analyses, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and RNA interference analyses unveiled the significance of an Ets-consensus motif in the proximal region and the interaction of the Ets family member SAP1a (serum response factor (SRF) accessory protein-1a) with this region of the human INSIG2 promoter. Moreover, our findings suggest that insulin activated the human INSIG2 promoter in a process mediated by phosphorylated SAP1a. Overall, these results map the functional elements in the human INSIG2 promoter sequence and suggest an unexpected regulation of INSIG2 gene expression in human liver. © 2010 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.


Casino P.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Casino P.,Institute Of Biologia Molecular Of Barcelona Ibmb Csic | Miguel-Romero L.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Marina A.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Marina A.,CIBER ISCIII
Nature Communications | Year: 2014

Reversible protein phosphorylation is the most widespread regulatory mechanism in signal transduction. Autophosphorylation in a dimeric sensor histidine kinase is the first step in two-component signalling, the predominant signal-transduction device in bacteria. Despite being the most abundant sensor kinases in nature, the molecular bases of the histidine kinase autophosphorylation mechanism are still unknown. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that autophosphorylation can occur in two directions, cis (intrasubunit) or trans (intersubunit) within the dimeric histidine kinase. Here, we present the crystal structure of the complete catalytic machinery of a chimeric histidine kinase. The structure shows an asymmetric histidine kinase dimer where one subunit is caught performing the autophosphorylation reaction. A structure-guided functional analysis on HK853 and EnvZ, two prototypical cis- and trans-phosphorylating histidine kinases, has allowed us to decipher the catalytic mechanism of histidine kinase autophosphorylation, which seems to be common independently of the reaction directionality.


Galindo M.I.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Fernandez-Garza D.,University of Sussex | Phillips R.,University of Sussex | Couso J.P.,University of Sussex
Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

The expression of the Hox gene Distal-less (Dll) directs the development of appendages in a wide variety of animals. In Drosophila, its expression is subjected to a complex developmental control. In the present work we have studied a 17. kb genomic region in the Dll locus which lies downstream of the coding sequence and found control elements of primary functional importance for the expression of Dll in the leg and in other tissues. Of particular interest is a control element, which we have called LP, which drives expression of Dll in the leg primordium from early embryonic development, and whose deletion causes severe truncation and malformation of the adult leg. This is the first Dll enhancer for which, in addition to the ability to drive expression of a reporter, a role can be demonstrated in the expression of the endogenous Dll gene and in the development of the leg. In addition, our results suggest that some enhancers, contrary to the widely accepted notion, may require a specific 5' or 3' position with respect to the transcribed region. © 2011.


Marin I.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Most proteins of the TRIM family (also known as RBCC family) are ubiquitin ligases that share a peculiar protein structure, characterized by including an N-terminal RING finger domain closely followed by one or two B-boxes. Additional protein domains found at their C termini have been used to classify TRIM proteins into classes. TRIMs are involved in multiple cellular processes and many of them are essential components of the innate immunity system of animal species. In humans, it has been shown that mutations in several TRIM-encoding genes lead to diverse genetic diseases and contribute to several types of cancer. They had been hitherto detected only in animals. In this work, by comprehensively analyzing the available diversity of TRIM and TRIM-like protein sequences and evaluating their evolutionary patterns, an improved classification of the TRIM family is obtained. Members of one of the TRIM subfamilies defined, called Subfamily A, turn to be present not only in animals, but also in many other eukaryotes, such as fungi, apusozoans, alveolates, excavates and plants. The rest of subfamilies are animal-specific and several of them originated only recently. Subfamily A proteins are characterized by containing a MATH domain, suggesting a potential evolutionary connection between TRIM proteins and a different type of ubiquitin ligases, known as TRAFs, which contain quite similar MATH domains. These results indicate that the TRIM family emerged much earlier than so far thought and contribute to our understanding of its origin and diversification. The structural and evolutionary links with the TRAF family of ubiquitin ligases can be experimentally explored to determine whether functional connections also exist. © 2012 Ignacio Marín.


Penades J.R.,University of Glasgow | Chen J.,New York University | Quiles-Puchalt N.,University of Glasgow | Quiles-Puchalt N.,CEU Cardenal Herrera University | And 3 more authors.
Current Opinion in Microbiology | Year: 2015

Bacteriophages are types of viruses that infect bacteria. They are the most abundant and diverse entities in the biosphere, and influence the evolution of most bacterial species by promoting gene transfer, sometimes in unexpected ways. Although pac-type phages can randomly package and transfer bacterial DNA by a process called generalized transduction, some mobile genetic elements have developed elegant and sophisticated strategies to hijack the phage DNA-packaging machinery for their own transfer. Moreover, phage-like particles (gene transfer agents) have also evolved, that can package random pieces of the producing cell's genome. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of some of the various ways by which phages and phage-like particles can transfer bacterial genes, driving bacterial evolution and promoting the emergence of novel pathogens. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Alvarez M.S.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Fernandez-Alvarez A.,CONICET | Cucarella C.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic | Casado M.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2014

Sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP), encoded by the Srebf1 and Srebf2 genes, are important regulators of genes involved in cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. Whereas SREBP-2 controls the cholesterol synthesis, SREBP-1 proteins (-1a and -1c) function as the central hubs in lipid metabolism. Despite the key function of these transcription factors to promote adipocyte differentiation, the roles of SREBP-1 proteins during the preadipocyte state remain unknown. Here, we evaluate the role of SREBP-1 in preadipocyte proliferation using RNA interference technology. Knockdown of the SREBP-1a gene decreased the proliferation rate in human SGBS preadipocyte cell strain without inducing senescence. Furthermore, our data identified retinoblastoma binding protein 8 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 3 genes as new potential SREBP-1 targets, in addition to cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A which had already been described as a gene regulated by SREBP-1a. These data suggested a new role of SREBP-1 in adipogenesis via regulation of preadipocyte proliferation. ©2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


Valle J.,Public University of Navarra | Latasa C.,Public University of Navarra | Gil C.,Public University of Navarra | Toledo-Arana A.,Public University of Navarra | And 3 more authors.
PLoS Pathogens | Year: 2012

The biofilm matrix, composed of exopolysaccharides, proteins, nucleic acids and lipids, plays a well-known role as a defence structure, protecting bacteria from the host immune system and antimicrobial therapy. However, little is known about its responsibility in the interaction of biofilm cells with host tissues. Staphylococcus aureus, a leading cause of biofilm-associated chronic infections, is able to develop a biofilm built on a proteinaceous Bap-mediated matrix. Here, we used the Bap protein as a model to investigate the role that components of the biofilm matrix play in the interaction of S. aureus with host cells. The results show that Bap promotes the adhesion but prevents the entry of S. aureus into epithelial cells. A broad analysis of potential interaction partners for Bap using ligand overlayer immunoblotting, immunoprecipitation with purified Bap and pull down with intact bacteria, identified a direct binding between Bap and Gp96/GRP94/Hsp90 protein. The interaction of Bap with Gp96 provokes a significant reduction in the capacity of S. aureus to invade epithelial cells by interfering with the fibronectin binding protein invasion pathway. Consistent with these results, Bap deficient bacteria displayed an enhanced capacity to invade mammary gland epithelial cells in a lactating mice mastitis model. Our observations begin to elucidate the mechanisms by which components of the biofilm matrix can facilitate the colonization of host tissues and the establishment of persistent infections. © 2012 Valle et al.


Francis S.M.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic
Nucleic acids research | Year: 2012

Developmentally Regulated GTP-binding (DRG) proteins are highly conserved GTPases that associate with DRG Family Regulatory Proteins (DFRP). The resulting complexes have recently been shown to participate in eukaryotic translation. The structure of the Rbg1 GTPase, a yeast DRG protein, in complex with the C-terminal region of its DFRP partner, Tma46, was solved by X-ray diffraction. These data reveal that DRG proteins are multimodular factors with three additional domains, helix-turn-helix (HTH), S5D2L and TGS, packing against the GTPase platform. Surprisingly, the S5D2L domain is inserted in the middle of the GTPase sequence. In contrast, the region of Tma46 interacting with Rbg1 adopts an extended conformation typical of intrinsically unstructured proteins and contacts the GTPase and TGS domains. Functional analyses demonstrate that the various domains of Rbg1, as well as Tma46, modulate the GTPase activity of Rbg1 and contribute to the function of these proteins in vivo. Dissecting the role of the different domains revealed that the Rbg1 TGS domain is essential for the recruitment of this factor in polysomes, supporting further the implication of these conserved factors in translation.


Quiles-Puchalt N.,Institute Biomedicina Of Valencia Ibv Csic
Molecular microbiology | Year: 2014

Bacteriophages play a major role in spreading mobile genetic elements (MGEs)-encoded genes among bacterial populations. In spite of this, the molecular requirements for building phage transducing particles have not been completely deciphered. Here, we systematically inactivated each ORF from the packaging and lysis modules of the staphylococcal phage φ11, used as a model for the Siphoviridae phages infecting Gram-positive bacteria, and determined their functional role in transferring different MGEs including plasmids, staphylococcal pathogenicity islands (SaPIs) and the phage itself. In a previous report, we identified seven of these ORFs as being required for the production of functional phage or SaPI particles. In this report, we have completed the mutational analysis and have identified and characterized 15 additional phage-encoded proteins required for the production of mature phage, SaPI, or transducing particles. Apart from these, we have not yet ascertained any specific function for the six remaining φ11 genes, though they are highly conserved among the staphylococcal bacteriophages. To the best of our knowledge, this study represents the first systematic deletion analysis of all the ORFs comprising the morphogenetic and lysis modules of a phage, clearly defining the molecular requirements involved in phage-mediated MGEs transfer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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