Institute Biology Leiden


Institute Biology Leiden

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Overman J.P.,University Utrecht | Preisinger C.,University Utrecht | Preisinger C.,Netherlands Proteomics Center | Preisinger C.,The Interdisciplinary Center | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Noonan syndrome (NS) and LEOPARD syndrome (LS) cause congenital afflictions such as short stature, hypertelorism and heart defects. More than 50% of NS and almost all of LS cases are caused by activating and inactivating mutations of the phosphatase Shp2, respectively. How these biochemically opposing mutations lead to similar clinical outcomes is not clear. Using zebrafish models of NS and LS and mass spectrometry-based phosphotyrosine proteomics, we identified a downregulated peptide of Fer kinase in both NS and LS. Further investigation showed a role for Fer during development, where morpholino-based knockdown caused craniofacial defects, heart edema and short stature. During gastrulation, loss of Fer caused convergence and extension defects without affecting cell fate. Moreover, Fer knockdown cooperated with NS and LS, but not wild type Shp2 to induce developmental defects, suggesting a role for Fer in the pathogenesis of both NS and LS. © 2014 Paardekooper Overman et al.

Overman J.P.,University Utrecht | Yi J.-S.,Yale University | Bonetti M.,University Utrecht | Soulsby M.,Yale University | And 12 more authors.
Molecular and Cellular Biology | Year: 2014

Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by activating mutations in the PTPN11 gene encoding Shp2, which manifests in congenital heart disease, short stature, and facial dysmorphia. The complexity of Shp2 signaling is exemplified by the observation that LEOPARD syndrome (LS) patients possess inactivating PTPN11 mutations yet exhibit similar symptoms to NS. Here, we identify "protein zero-related" (PZR), a transmembrane glycoprotein that interfaces with the extracellular matrix to promote cell migration, as a major hyper-tyrosyl-phosphorylated protein in mouse and zebrafish models of NS and LS. PZR hyper-tyrosyl phosphorylation is facilitated in a phosphatase-independent manner by enhanced Src recruitment to NS and LS Shp2. In zebrafish, PZR overexpression recapitulated NS and LS phenotypes. PZR was required for zebrafish gastrulation in a manner dependent upon PZR tyrosyl phosphorylation. Hence, we identify PZR as an NS and LS target. Enhanced PZR-mediated membrane recruitment of Shp2 serves as a common mechanism to direct overlapping pathophysiological characteristics of these PTPN11 mutations. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology.

Subedi A.,Naturalis Biodiversity Center | Kunwar B.,Tribhuvan University | Choi Y.,Institute Biology Leiden | Dai Y.,Institute Biology Leiden | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine | Year: 2013

Background: Wild orchids are illegally harvested and traded in Nepal for use in local traditional medicine, horticulture, and international trade. This study aims to: 1) identify the diversity of species of wild orchids in trade in Nepal; 2) study the chain of commercialization from collector to client and/or export; 3) map traditional knowledge and medicinal use of orchids; and 4) integrate the collected data to propose a more sustainable approach to orchid conservation in Nepal.Methods: Trade, species diversity, and traditional use of wild-harvested orchids were documented during field surveys of markets and through interviews. Trade volumes and approximate income were estimated based on surveys and current market prices. Orchid material samples were identified to species level using a combination of morphology and DNA barcoding.Results: Orchid trade is a long tradition, and illegal export to China, India and Hong Kong is rife. Estimates show that 9.4 tons of wild orchids were illegally traded from the study sites during 2008/2009. A total of 60 species of wild orchids were reported to be used in traditional medicinal practices to cure at least 38 different ailments, including energizers, aphrodisiacs and treatments of burnt skin, fractured or dislocated bones, headaches, fever and wounds. DNA barcoding successfully identified orchid material to species level that remained sterile after culturing.Conclusions: Collection of wild orchids was found to be widespread in Nepal, but illegal trade is threatening many species in the wild. Establishment of small-scale sustainable orchid breeding enterprises could be a valuable alternative for the production of medicinal orchids for local communities. Critically endangered species should be placed on CITES Appendix I to provide extra protection to those species. DNA barcoding is an effective method for species identification and monitoring of illegal cross-border trade. © 2013 Subedi et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Liu Z.,Leiden Institute of Chemistry | Jiang L.,Leiden Institute of Chemistry | Galli F.,Leiden University | Nederlof I.,Leiden Institute of Chemistry | And 4 more authors.
Advanced Functional Materials | Year: 2010

In our postgenomic era, understanding of protein-protein interactions by characterizing the structure of the corresponding protein complex is becoming increasingly important. An important problem is that many protein complexes are only stable for a few minutes. Dissociation will occur when using the typical, time-consuming purification methods such as tandem affinity purification and multiple chromatographic separations. Therefore, there is an urgent need for a quick and efficient protein-complex purification method for 3D structure characterization. The graphene oxide (GO) · streptavidin complex is prepared via a GO · biotin · streptavidin strategy and used for affinity purification. The complex shows a strong biotin recognition capability and an excellent loading capacity. Capturing biotinylated DNA, fluorophores and Au nanoparticles on the GO · streptavidin complexes demonstrates the usefulness of the GO · streptavidin complex as a docking matrix for affinity purification. GO shows a high transparency towards electron beams, making it specifically well suited for direct imaging by electron microscopy. The captured protein complex can be separated via a filtration process or even via on-grid purification and used directly for single-particle analysis via cryo-electron microscopy. Therefore, the purification, sample preparation, and characterization are rolled into one single step. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Li J.,Leiden Institute of Chemistry | Girard G.,Institute Biology Leiden | Florea B.I.,Leiden Institute of Chemistry | Geurink P.P.,Leiden Institute of Chemistry | And 5 more authors.
Organic and Biomolecular Chemistry | Year: 2012

A distinguishing feature of the lantibiotic family of cyclic peptides is the presence of thioethers. Treatment of a lantibiotic with an alkaline solution at high pH gives rise to a β-elimination reaction yielding the corresponding ring opened precursor, containing a dehydro-amino acid residue. We here reveal in a proof-of-concept study that a ring opened lantibiotic (mersacidin) can be captured for pull-down from a culture broth, subsequently released and identified by mass spectrometry. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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