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Kim J.,University of Tokyo | Ishiguro K.-I.,University of Tokyo | Nambu A.,University of Tokyo | Akiyoshi B.,University of Tokyo | And 10 more authors.
Nature | Year: 2015

The kinetochore is the crucial apparatus regulating chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Particularly in meiosis I, unlike in mitosis, sister kinetochores are captured by microtubules emanating from the same spindle pole (mono-orientation) and centromeric cohesion mediated by cohesin is protected in the following anaphase. Although meiotic kinetochore factors have been identified only in budding and fission yeasts, these molecules and their functions are thought to have diverged earlier. Therefore, a conserved mechanism for meiotic kinetochore regulation remains elusive. Here we have identified in mouse a meiosis-specific kinetochore factor that we termed MEIKIN, which functions in meiosis I but not in meiosis II or mitosis. MEIKIN plays a crucial role in both mono-orientation and centromeric cohesion protection, partly by stabilizing the localization of the cohesin protector shugoshin. These functions are mediated mainly by the activity of Polo-like kinase PLK1, which is enriched to kinetochores in a MEIKIN-dependent manner. Our integrative analysis indicates that the long-awaited key regulator of meiotic kinetochore function is Meikin, which is conserved from yeasts to humans. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Rattani A.,University of Oxford | Wolna M.,University of Oxford | Ploquin M.,University of Oxford | Ploquin M.,New England Biolabs | And 9 more authors.
eLife | Year: 2013

Accurate chromosome segregation depends on coordination between cohesion resolution and kinetochore-microtubule interactions (K-fibers), a process regulated by the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). How these diverse processes are coordinated remains unclear. We show that in mammalian oocytes Shugoshin-like protein 2 (Sgol2) in addition to protecting cohesin, plays an important role in turning off the SAC, in promoting the congression and bi-orientation of bivalents on meiosis I spindles, in facilitating formation of K-fibers and in limiting bivalent stretching. Sgol2's ability to protect cohesin depends on its interaction with PP2A, as is its ability to silence the SAC, with the latter being mediated by direct binding to Mad2. In contrast, its effect on bivalent stretching and K-fiber formation is independent of PP2A and mediated by recruitment of MCAK and inhibition of Aurora C kinase activity respectively. By virtue of its multiple interactions, Sgol2 links many of the processes essential for faithful chromosome segregation. © Rattani et al.

Llano E.,University of Salamanca | Gomez-H L.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular del Cancer CSIC USAL | Garcia-Tunon I.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular del Cancer CSIC USAL | Sanchez-Martin M.,University of Salamanca | And 7 more authors.
Human Molecular Genetics | Year: 2014

Oligo- and azoospermia are severe forms of male infertility. However, known genetic factors account only for a small fraction of the cases. Recently, whole-exome sequencing in a large consanguineous family with inherited premature ovarian failure (POF) identified a homozygous frameshift mutation in the STAG3 gene leading to a premature stop codon. STAG3encodes a meiosis-specific subunit of the cohesin complex, alarge proteinaceous ring with DNA-entrapping ability that ensures sister chromatid cohesion and enables correct synapsis and segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis. The pathogenicity of the STAG3 mutations was functionally validated with a loss- of-function mouse model for STAG3 in oogenesis.However,and sincenone of the male members of this family was homozygous for the mutant allele, we only could hypothesized its putative involvement inmale infertility. In this report,we show that male mice devoid of Stag3 display a severe meiotic phenotype that includes a meiotic arrest at zygonema-like shortening of their chromosome axial elements/lateral elements, partial loss of centromeric cohesion at early prophase and maintenance of the ability to initiate but not complete RAD51- and DMC1-mediated double-strand break repair,demonstrating that STAG3 is a crucial cohesin subunit in mammalian gametogenesis and supporting our proposal that STAG3 is a strong candidate gene for human male infertility. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Herran Y.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular del Cancer CSIC USAL | Gutierrez-Caballero C.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular del Cancer CSIC USAL | Sanchez-Martin M.,Campus Miguel de Unamuno S N | Hernandez T.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular del Cancer CSIC USAL | And 7 more authors.
EMBO Journal | Year: 2011

The cohesin complex is a ring-shaped proteinaceous structure that entraps the two sister chromatids after replication until the onset of anaphase when the ring is opened by proteolytic cleavage of its α-kleisin subunit (RAD21 at mitosis and REC8 at meiosis) by separase. RAD21L is a recently identified α-kleisin that is present from fish to mammals and biochemically interacts with the cohesin subunits SMC1, SMC3 and STAG3. RAD21L localizes along the axial elements of the synaptonemal complex of mouse meiocytes. However, its existence as a bona fide cohesin and its functional role awaits in vivo validation. Here, we show that male mice lacking RAD21L are defective in full synapsis of homologous chromosomes at meiotic prophase I, which provokes an arrest at zygotene and leads to total azoospermia and consequently infertility. In contrast, RAD21L-deficient females are fertile but develop an age-dependent sterility. Thus, our results provide in vivo evidence that RAD21L is essential for male fertility and in females for the maintenance of fertility during natural aging. © 2011 European Molecular Biology Organization.

Gutierrez-Caballero C.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular del Cancer CSIC USAL | Herran Y.,Institute Biologia Molecular Y Celular del Cancer CSIC USAL | Sanchez-Martin M.,Campus Miguel de Unamuno | Suja J.A.,Autonomous University of Madrid | And 3 more authors.
Cell Cycle | Year: 2011

Meiosis is a fundamental process that generates new combinations between maternal and paternal genomes and haploid gametes from diploid progenitors. Many of the meiosis-specific events stem from the behavior of the cohesin complex (CC), a proteinaceous ring structure that entraps sister chromatids until the onset of anaphase. CCs ensure chromosome segregation, participate in DNA repair, regulate gene expression, and also contribute to synaptonemal complex (SC) formation at meiosis by keeping long-range distant DNA interactions through its conserved structure. Studies from yeast to humans have led to the assumption that Scc1/RAD21 is the α-kleisin that closes the tripartite CC that entraps two DNA molecules in mitosis, while its paralog ReC8 is essential for meiosis. Here we describe the identification of RAD21L, a novel mammalian CC subunit with homology to the RAD21/ReC8 α-kleisin subfamily, which is expressed in mouse testis. RAD21L interacts with other cohesin subunits such as SMC1α, SMC1β, SMC3 and with the meiosis-specific STAG3 protein. Thus, our results demonstrate the existence of a new meiotic-specific CC constituted by this α-kleisin and expand the view of ReC8 as the only specific meiotic α-kleisin. © 2011 Landes Bioscience.

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