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Rato C.,University of Porto | Rato C.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | Carranza S.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | Harris D.J.,University of Porto
Gene | Year: 2013

A previous study on the evolutionary patterns of Tarentola mauritanica demonstrated that low levels of mitochondrial diversity observed in the European populations relative to nuclear markers were consistent with a selective sweep hypothesis. In order to unravel the mitochondrial evolutionary history in this European population and two other lineages of T. mauritanica (Iberian and North African clades), variation within 22 nearly complete mitogenomes was analyzed. Surprisingly, each clade seems to have a distinct evolutionary history; with both the European and Iberian clades presenting a decrease of polymorphism, which in the former is consistent with departure from neutrality of the mtDNA (positive or background selection), but in the latter seems to be the result of a bottleneck after a population expansion. The pattern exhibited by the North African clade seems to be a consequence of adaptation to certain mtDNA variants by positive selection. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Gomez-Zurita J.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | Cardoso A.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | Balke M.,Zoologische Staatssammlung Munich
Zoologica Scripta | Year: 2012

Autochthonous European insect diversity is the result of the very complex geological, geographic and climatic history of the Mediterranean area. The leaf beetle genus Cryptocephalus has over 250 species in this area. Among them stands out a group nearly endemic from this region consisting of conspicuous metallic green or blue beetles which can be found visiting yellow Asteraceae flowers in most mid- to high-altitude European grasslands: the Linnaean species C. hypochaeridis, C. sericeus, and all their relatives. In all, these are 32 species forming several taxonomically complex groups across Europe. We sampled all morphological diversity in this lineage and characterized it for two mitochondrial DNA genes. The mtDNA phylogeny of this assemblage was inferred, as well as the timing of its diversification using standard mtDNA substitution rates and a hypothetical Messinian vicariant split. The origin of the group can be traced back to western continental Eurasia in the Lower Miocene. Its subsequent taxonomic splits can be linked to specific periods in the formation of Europe, with a marked trend to east-west phylogenetic divides throughout time and space, and a nearly constant rate of diversification. Only during the Pleistocene, a significant increase in diversification rate can be associated with species formation in the C. hypochaeridis and C. sericeus species complexes. Within these latter groups, most taxa show some degree of mtDNA paraphyly as a result of their recent separation and remarkably by episodes of gene flow in areas of secondary contact among recently diverged species, possibly driven by climatic change. © 2011 The Authors. Zoologica Scripta © 2011 The Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.


PubMed | Jagiellonian University, University of Campinas, Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF and University of Medellín
Type: | Journal: Neotropical entomology | Year: 2017

DNA barcoding is a technique used primarily for the documentation and identification of biological diversity based on mitochondrial DNA sequences. Butterflies have received particular attention in DNA barcoding studies, although varied performance may be obtained due to different scales of geographic sampling and speciation processes in various groups. The montane Andean Satyrinae constitutes a challenging study group for taxonomy. The group displays high richness, with more of 550 species, and remarkable morphological similarity among taxa, which renders their identification difficult. In the present study, we evaluated the effectiveness of DNA barcodes in the identification of montane Andean satyrines and the effect of increased geographical scale of sampling on identification performance. Mitochondrial sequences were obtained from 104 specimens of 39 species and 16 genera, collected in a forest remnant in the northwest Andes. DNA barcoding has proved to be a useful tool for the identification of the specimens, with a well-defined gap and producing clusters with unambiguous identifications for all the morphospecies in the study area. The expansion of the geographical scale with published data increased genetic distances within species and reduced those among species, but did not generally reduce the success of specimen identification. Only in Forsterinaria rustica (Butler, 1868), a taxon with high intraspecific variation, the barcode gap was lost and low support for monophyly was obtained. Likewise, expanded sampling resulted in a substantial increase in the intraspecific distance in Morpho sulkowskyi (Kollar, 1850); Panyapedaliodes drymaea (Hewitson, 1858); Lymanopoda obsoleta (Westwood, 1851); and Lymanopoda labda Hewitson, 1861; but for these species, the barcode gap was maintained. These divergent lineages are nonetheless worth a detailed study of external and genitalic morphology variation, as well as ecological features, in order to determine the potential existence of cryptic species. Even including these cases, DNA barcoding performance in specimen identification was 100% successful based on monophyly, an unexpected result in such a taxonomically complicated group.


Santos X.,University of Porto | Santos X.,University of Barcelona | Rato C.,University of Porto | Rato C.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | And 4 more authors.
Zoology | Year: 2012

The rise of molecular techniques in the study of evolutionary histories has resulted in a gradual abandonment of morphological characters as the only sources of phylogenetic inference. However, morphological characters may be valuable for phylogenetic reconstruction, especially for tracking adaptive changes across phylogeographic groups defined by genetic markers. We examined the discriminative power of morphological characters between four mitochondrial clades covering almost the entire distribution area of the smooth snake Coronella girondica in the Western Mediterranean. We detected three characters showing sexual dimorphism (relative tail length, number of ventral and of subcaudal scale counts) and, more interestingly, two characters (number of subcaudal and of dorsal rows) displaying interclade differences. Almost all C. girondica examined had 21 dorsal rows except those from a narrow coastal belt in the south-eastern Iberian Peninsula, which had 19 dorsal rows. The distribution of these specimens matches a mitochondrial clade that originated approximately 1.4-2.0 million years ago. Both of these morphological characters support a Betic lineage with a rather well-defined contact zone with the other Iberian lineage, which has been maintained even without the existence of current geographic barriers. The long-term survival of the Betic lineage throughout the Pleistocene climatic oscillations suggests a systematic revision within C. girondica. © 2012 Elsevier GmbH.


Santos X.,University of Porto | Santos X.,University of Barcelona | Rato C.,University of Porto | Rato C.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research | Year: 2012

Palearctic reptiles with wide distribution through the Western Mediterranean are expected to display genetic substructuring because of the combining effects of current or past geographic barriers and climate fluctuations. We have examined this issue by sequencing cytochrome b and 16S rRNA mitochondrial fragments of 80 individuals of the snake Coronella girondica from 71 localities, covering the range of the species across Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, Spain, Portugal, southern France and north-western Italy. According to the obtained genealogy, C. girondica is structured into three divergent and well-supported clades (north-western Africa, Betic range and Iberia-France-Italy), which greatly match other phylogeographies already published for this region. Our estimations suggest that the divergence among the three clades took place approximately 1.4-2.0Ma, which roughly coincides with the Plio-Pleistocene transition, characterized by an increase in climate variability. The existence of a clade in a narrow belt of south-eastern Iberia represents another example of the high endemism rate of the region, with a key geographical situation and an important role in vicariant processes. Since the split among the three major lineages would be take place after the opening of the Strait of Gibraltar, overwater dispersal is here suggested. The subsequent genetic substructuring of these clades during the Pleistocene fits within the refugia-within-refugia model, highlighting the importance of the region as a scenario for multiple vicariant events. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Llorente G.A.,University of Barcelona | Vidal-Garcia M.,University of Barcelona | Garriga N.,University of Barcelona | Carranza S.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | And 3 more authors.
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2012

Molecular evidence suggests that climatic fluctuations in the peninsulas of southern European during the Miocene and Pleistocene resulted in considerable genetic differentiation of organisms, probably following a 'refugia within refugia' model. We examined morphometric and meristic characters in museum specimens from the three Iberian clades of the smooth snake Coronella austriaca, previously described by molecular markers. We found sexual and interclade differences in scale counts and head shape. Sexes were dimorphic in the number of ventral and subcaudal scales, although sexual disparities in scale counts differed among clades. Moreover, discriminant and canonical analyses showed higher interclade differences in males than in females. The results obtained in the present study match those from molecular markers and confirm the population structure identified within Iberian C.austriaca. The observed sex discrepancy in this pattern suggests that males and females are subjected to different selective pressures along their Iberian distribution. In light of the above, C. austriaca may offer a useful model system in which to explore phylogeographical patterns in southern Europe, as well as the conflicts between processes driving morphological sexual divergence. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London.


Marin M.A.,National University of Colombia | Marin M.A.,University of Antioquia | Alvarez C.F.,National University of Colombia | Alvarez C.F.,Lasallista University Corporation | And 5 more authors.
Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad | Year: 2014

Deforestation around large urban centers usually creates a fragmented landscape with reduced natural areas. Biodiversity studies in these forest remnants provide useful tools for designing conservation strategies that maximize the persistence of local diversity and promote their connectivity. Inventories focused on particular taxa have been proposed as a useful mechanism that allows a better knowledge of the state of biodiversity in a given area, the butterflies are one of the taxonomic groups more frequently used for these studies. In this paper, we study the diversity and composition of the butterfly community in the cloud forest of the reserve El Romeral located southwest of the Medellín City in the Aburrá Valley, Colombia. We recorded 75 species belonging to 5 butterfly families, more than recorded for similar forests associated with periurban areas. El Romeral shares only 50% of the species with the main periurban forest located east of the valley, indicating that each of the surrounding forest remnants of the city may have a unique composition of species being complementary and useful for regional conservation.


Abellan P.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Abellan P.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | Benetti C.J.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Angus R.B.,Natural History Museum in London | And 2 more authors.
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2011

Aim To undertake a quantitative review of the Quaternary fossil record of European water beetles to evaluate their geographical and temporal coverage, and to characterize the extent and typology of the shifts in their geographical ranges.Location- Europe.Methods- We compiled Quaternary water beetle records from public databases and published references. We included in the analyses species of 10 families of aquatic Coleoptera, and recorded range shifts through the comparison of the location of fossil remains with the current distribution of the species. We explored the ecological representativeness of the fossil record, as well as the relationship between range shifts and the habitat type of the species.Results- Our final data set included over 9000 records for 259 water beetle species. Fossil remains of aquatic beetles have been documented exclusively north of 42° N, with most of the records from the British Isles and virtually none from southern Europe or the Mediterranean Basin. Over 80% of the records were from the Late Glacial and the Holocene periods (the last 15 kyr), and overall approximately 20% of the species have been recorded outside their present range (23% excluding Holocene records). Most range shifts were southern or western extensions of currently widespread, northern species, with 10 species displaying major range shifts through the Palaearctic. Lentic species were significantly more likely to have experienced major range shifts, even accounting for the general ecological bias of the fossil record towards lentic habitats.Main conclusions Our results show that the Quaternary record of aquatic Coleoptera is geographically, temporally and ecologically skewed, necessitating caution when extrapolating general conclusions about range changes and ecological stability to other areas or periods on the basis of such scattered evidence. Most central and northern European species for which there are fossil records seem to have conserved their ranges through the Late Pleistocene, with geographical shifts mostly restricted to species with current widespread north Palaearctic or Holarctic distributions. Major range shifts through the Palaearctic are taxonomically uneven, suggesting either an idiosyncratic behaviour of taxa depending on ecological or phylogenetic factors, or a sampling artefact produced by the limited availability of taxonomic expertise. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.


Hidalgo-Galiana A.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | Hidalgo-Galiana A.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Ribera I.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF | Ribera I.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

We provide a reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships, the geographical and temporal origin, and the mode of diversification of the Mediterranean species of the aquatic beetle family Hydrochidae (Coleoptera, Hydrophiloidea). A total of ca. 3. KB of sequence data of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 62 specimens of 21 species of Hydrochus, including all western Mediterranean species but one. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian methods and an evolutionary rate of 0.0115 substitutions/site/MY, and used an ultrametric calibrated tree to construct a Lineage Through Time (LTT) plot to test alternative models of diversification. A well resolved, well supported phylogeny showed that all western Mediterranean Hydrochus formed a clade, sister to a group including species with a central and eastern European distribution. The origin of the western Mediterranean clade was estimated to be at ca. 13MY, and the speciation events took place between this time and the end of the Messinian, at about 5.3MY. The LTT plot best fitted a model with a shift in the rate of diversification at ca. 8 MY, with a single speciation event (originating two Iberian endemics) subsequent to this period. We conclude that most of the western Mediterranean species of Hydrochidae, including the Ibero-Maghrebian endemics, are ancient elements likely to have remained in the same geographical area since their Miocene origin. Our results add to a growing body of evidence showing the importance of Mediterranean long-term, Tertiary refugia as both cradles and museums of diversity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Institute Biologia Evolutiva CSIC UPF
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Molecular phylogenetics and evolution | Year: 2011

We provide a reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships, the geographical and temporal origin, and the mode of diversification of the Mediterranean species of the aquatic beetle family Hydrochidae (Coleoptera, Hydrophiloidea). A total of ca. 3KB of sequence data of three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes were used to reconstruct the phylogeny of 62 specimens of 21 species of Hydrochus, including all western Mediterranean species but one. We estimated the times of divergence using Bayesian methods and an evolutionary rate of 0.0115 substitutions/site/MY, and used an ultrametric calibrated tree to construct a Lineage Through Time (LTT) plot to test alternative models of diversification. A well resolved, well supported phylogeny showed that all western Mediterranean Hydrochus formed a clade, sister to a group including species with a central and eastern European distribution. The origin of the western Mediterranean clade was estimated to be at ca. 13MY, and the speciation events took place between this time and the end of the Messinian, at about 5.3MY. The LTT plot best fitted a model with a shift in the rate of diversification at ca. 8 MY, with a single speciation event (originating two Iberian endemics) subsequent to this period. We conclude that most of the western Mediterranean species of Hydrochidae, including the Ibero-Maghrebian endemics, are ancient elements likely to have remained in the same geographical area since their Miocene origin. Our results add to a growing body of evidence showing the importance of Mediterranean long-term, Tertiary refugia as both cradles and museums of diversity.

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