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Sanchez-Fernandez D.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Sanchez-Fernandez D.,University of Murcia | Lobo J.M.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | Millan A.,University of Murcia | Ribera I.,Institute Biologia Evolutiva UPF CSIC
Global Ecology and Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim The contrasting habitat permanence over geological time-scales of lotic and lentic habitats may impose different constraints on the dispersal ability of their macroinvertebrate populations, and ultimately on the degree of equilibrium with current climate. We aim to test for differences between species typical of either habitat type in their potential versus realized distributions as a surrogate measure of degree of climate equilibrium, both in refuges and more recently deglaciated areas. Location Western Europe. Methods We focus on 99 Iberian diving beetles (family Dytiscidae). A multidimensional envelope procedure was used to estimate their potential distributions, which were projected for different spatial scales. At the continental scale we calculated the percentage of countries with climatically suitable conditions for each species over those actually occupied (range filling). At the regional scale, we estimated realized distributions using: (1) convex hull polygons for Sweden and the Iberian Peninsula; and (2) generalized linear models for the Iberian Peninsula. Results In the Iberian Peninsula, differences in the degree of equilibrium with climatic conditions between lotic and lentic species were few, if any. However, at the continental scale we found significant differences, with lentic species closer to equilibrium than lotic species. In the recently deglaciated area (Sweden) the subset of species with ranges wide enough to encompass Iberia and Scandinavia were mostly lentic, and all were closer to climatic equilibrium without significant differences between habitat types. Main conclusions Our results show that, at continental scales, climate equilibrium is not concordant between the habitat types across western Europe. We hypothesize that: (1) the differences between refuge areas in dispersal ability are erased probably due to long-term climatic stability, allowing enough time to reach equilibrium, and (2) the species with wide geographical ranges able to recolonize recently deglaciated areas should have the highest dispersal abilities, and are closer to climatic equilibrium. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Arribas P.,University of Murcia | Velasco J.,University of Murcia | Abellan P.,University of Aarhus | Sanchez-Fernandez D.,CSIC - National Museum of Natural Sciences | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim In aquatic ecosystems, standing (lentic) and running (lotic) waters differ fundamentally in their stability and persistence, shaping the comparative population genetic structure, geographical range size and speciation rates of lentic versus lotic lineages. While the drivers of this pattern remain incompletely understood, the suite of traits making up the ability of a species to establish new populations is instrumental in determining such differences. Here we explore the degree to which the association between habitat type and geographical range size results from differences in dispersal ability or fundamental niche breadth in the members of the Enochrus bicolor complex, an aquatic beetle clade with species across the lentic-lotic divide. Location Western Mediterranean, with a special focus on North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula and Sicily. Methods DNA sequences for four loci were obtained from species of the E. bicolor complex and analysed using phylogenetic inference. Dispersal and establishment abilities were assessed in lentic-lotic species pairs of the complex, using flight wing morphometrics and thermal tolerance ranges as surrogates, respectively. Results There were clear differences in range size between the lotic and lentic taxa of the complex, which appears to have had a lotic origin with two transitions to standing waters. Only small differences were observed in temperature tolerance and acclimation ability between the two lotic-lentic sister species studied. By contrast, wing morphometrics revealed clear, consistent differences between lotic and lentic Enochrus species pairs, the latter having a higher dispersal capacity. Main conclusions We hypothesize that there have been two habitat shifts from lotic to lentic waters, which have allowed marked expansions in geographical range size in western Mediterranean species of the E. bicolor complex. Differences in dispersal rather than in establishment ability appear to underlie differences in geographical range extent, as transitions to lentic waters were associated with changes in wing morphology, but not in thermal tolerance range. In this lineage of water beetles, selection for dispersal in geologically short-lived lentic systems has driven the evolution of larger range sizes in lentic taxa compared with those of their lotic relatives. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

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