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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

da Silva I.M.,Institute Biologia do Exercito | da Silva I.M.,University Estadual do Amazonas | Tavares A.M.,Fundacao de Medicina Tropical Dr. Heitor Vieira Dourado
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical | Year: 2012

Introduction: Snake bite, a problem in public health, generally occurs where there is no electric power. Methods: A comparative clinical study was conducted with 102 victims of Bothrops snake bite, from the state of Amazonas, Brazil; 58 victims were treated with liofilizated trivalent antivenom serum (SATL) and 44 victims treated with liquid bivalent and monovalent antivenom serum (SAMBL). Results: 17% (10/58) of patients presented adverse effects with the SATL and 25% (11/44) with the SAMBL. Conclusions: There was no statistic difference in number of adverse effects between the two types of snake bite antivenom. Source

Ramos L.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Figueiredo-Carvalho M.H.G.,Instituto Nacional Infectologia Evandro Chagas | Barbedo L.S.,Instituto Nacional Infectologia Evandro Chagas | Ziccardi M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2015

Objectives: The emerging fungal pathogens comprising the Candida haemulonii complex (Candida haemulonii, Candida haemulonii var. vulnera and Candida duobushaemulonii) are notable for their antifungal resistance. Twelve isolates with phenotypic similarity to C. haemulonii were recovered from patients in Brazilian hospitals. Here we aimed to identify these isolates by a molecular approach, using the current classification of this fungal complex, and to evaluate their antifungal susceptibility profiles. Methods: The fungal isolates were rechecked to certify their authentication by mycology methodologies and then characterized by ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 gene sequencing. A susceptibility assay was performed using the broth microdilution method published by CLSI (M27-A3/M27-S3). Results: Based on biochemical tests, all Brazilian isolates were identified as C. haemulonii. After employing ITS sequencing, five isolates were identified as C. haemulonii, four as C. duobushaemulonii and three as C. haemulonii var. vulnera. All 12 clinical isolates were resistant to amphotericin B (MICs ranged from 2 to > 16 mg/L) and fluconazole (MICs ≥ 64 mg/L). One isolate of C. haemulonii var. vulnera and two isolates of C. duobushaemulonii were susceptible-dose dependent to itraconazole, while the remaining isolates (75%) were resistant to this antifungal. Eight out of 12 isolates (66.7%) were resistant to voriconazole (MICs ≥ 16 mg/L), while all isolates were susceptible to caspofungin (MICs ≤ 0.5 mg/L). Conclusions: Our results reinforce the importance of molecular identification in differentiating species of the C. haemulonii complex. Moreover, the antifungal multiresistant profile of clinical isolates of the C. haemulonii complex represents a challenge to the treatment of such infections. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. Source

Farnesi L.C.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Farnesi L.C.,Institute Biologia do Exercito | Farnesi L.C.,Brazilian National Institute of Technology | Brito J.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 10 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Population control of the dengue vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti, is difficult due to many reasons, one being the development of resistance to neurotoxic insecticides employed. The biosynthesis of chitin, a major constituent of insect cuticle, is a novel target for population control. Novaluron is a benzoylphenylurea (BPU) that acts as a chitin synthesis inhibitor, already used against mosquitoes. However, information regarding BPU effects on immature mosquito stages and physiological parameters related with mosquito larval development are scarce. A set of physiological parameters were recorded in control developing larvae and novaluron was administered continuously to Ae. aegypti larvae, since early third instar. Larval instar period duration was recorded from third instar until pupation. Chitin content was measured during third and fourth instars. Fourth instars were processed histochemically at the mesothorax region, stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE) for assessment of internal tissues, and labeled with WGA-FITC to reveal chitinized structures. In control larvae: i) there is a chitin content increase during both third and fourth instars where late third instars contain more chitin than early fourth instars; ii) thoracic organs and a continuous cuticle, closely associated with the underlying epidermis were observed; iii) chitin was continuously present throughout integument cuticle. Novaluron treatment inhibited adult emergence, induced immature mortality, altered adult sex ratio and caused delay in larval development. Moreover, novaluron: i) significantly affected chitin content during larval development; ii) induced a discontinuous and altered cuticle in some regions while epidermis was often thinner or missing; iii) rendered chitin cuticle presence discontinuous and less evident. In both control and novaluron larvae, chitin was present in the peritrophic matrix. This study showed quantitatively and qualitatively evidences of novaluron effects on Ae. aegypti larval development. To our knowledge, this is the first report describing histological alterations produced by a BPU in immature vector mosquitoes. © 2012 Farnesi et al. Source

Belinato T.A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Belinato T.A.,Institute Biologia do Exercito | Martins A.J.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Martins A.J.,Institute Biologia do Exercito | And 3 more authors.
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2012

In Brazil, decades of dengue vector control using organophosphates and pyrethroids have led to dissemination of resistance. Although these insecticides have been employed for decades against Aedes aegypti in the country, knowledge of the impact of temephos resistance on vector viability is limited. We evaluated several fitness parameters in two Brazilian Ae. aegypti populations, both classified as deltamethrin resistant but with distinct resistant ratios (RR) for temephos. The insecticide-susceptible Rockefeller strain was used as an experimental control. The population presenting the higher temephos resistance level, Aparecida de Goiânia, state of Goiás (RR95 of 19.2), exhibited deficiency in the following four parameters: blood meal acceptance, amount of ingested blood, number of eggs and frequency of inseminated females. Mosquitoes from Boa Vista, state of Roraima, the population with lower temephos resistance level (RR95 of 7.4), presented impairment in only two parameters, blood meal acceptance and frequency of inseminated females. These results indicate that the overall fitness handicap was proportional to temephos resistance levels. However, it is unlikely that these disabilities can be attributed solely to temephos resistance, since both populations are also resistant to deltamethrin and harbour the kdr allele, which indicates resistance to pyrethroids. The effects of reduced fitness in resistant populations are discussed. Source

Belinato T.A.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Belinato T.A.,Institute Biologia do Exercito | Martins A.J.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Fiocruz | Martins A.J.,Institute Biologia do Exercito | And 5 more authors.
Parasites and Vectors | Year: 2013

Background: Resistance to traditional insecticides represents a threat to the control of disease vectors. The insect growth regulators (IGR) are a potential alternative to control mosquitoes, including resistant populations. The chitin synthesis inhibitors (CSI) are IGRs, which interfere with the insect molting process and represent one major class of compounds against Aedes aegypti populations resistant to the larvicide organophosphate temephos. In the present study, we evaluated the efficacy of the CSI triflumuron on Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes albopictus and against several Ae. aegypti field populations. Methods. The efficacy of triflumuron, against Cx. quinquefasciatus and Ae. albopictus was evaluated with laboratory strains through dose-response assays. Additionaly, this CSI was tested against seven Ae. aegypti field populations exhibiting distinct resistance levels to both temephos and the pyrethroid deltamethrin. Aedes aegypti populations were exposed to both a dose that inhibits 99% of the adult emergence of mosquitoes from the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, (EI99 = 3.95 μg/L) and the diagnostic dose (DD), corresponding to twice the EI99. Results: Our results indicate that triflumuron was effective in emergence inhibition (EI) of Cx. quinquefasciatus (EI50= 5.28 μg/L; EI90= 12.47 μg/L) and Ae. albopictus (EI50= 1.59 μg/L; EI90= 2.63 μg/L). Triflumuron was also effective against seven Ae. aegypti Brazilian populations resistant to both temephos and deltamethrin. Exposure of all the Ae. aegypti populations to the triflumuron EI99 of the susceptible reference strain, Rockefeller, resulted in complete inhibition of adult emergence, suggesting no cross-resistance among traditional insecticides and this CSI. However, a positive correlation between temephos resistance and tolerance to triflumuron was observed. Conclusion: The results suggest that triflumuron represents a potential tool for the control of disease vectors in public health. Nevertheless, they point to the need of constant monitoring of the susceptibility status of vector populations to CSIs. © 2013 Belinato et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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