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Costa W.J.E.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Lima S.M.Q.,Laboratorio Of Biodiversidade Molecular | Bartolette R.,Institute Biologia
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2010

Kryptolebias marmoratus is an important experimental fish, and is considered to represent the only vertebrate species comprising self-fertilizing hermaphroditic individuals. Subsequent to the discovery of this unusual mode of reproduction, approximately 50 years ago, K. marmoratus has been the focus of a series of studies. However, little is known about the evolution of this rare reproduction mode, and data on the biology of closely related species are still unavailable. The present study aimed to histologically analyse the gonads of three K. marmoratus congeners (i.e. Kryptolebias ocellatus, Kryptolebias caudomarginatus, and Kryptolebias brasiliensis) to check the distribution of features related to hermaphroditism that are useful for forming hypotheses about the origin and evolution of the self-fertilization mode of reproduction through the available phylogenies. The data obtained demonstrate that populations of K. caudomarginatus consist of males and hermaphrodites, which supports the hypothesis that hermaphroditism arose at the base of the clade containing K. caudomarginatus, K. marmoratus, and K. ocellatus as a first step towards a more advanced condition, uniquely shared by both K. marmoratus and K. ocellatus, in which males are rare or absent in natural populations, with the subsequent occurrence of self-fertilization. © 2010 The Linnean Society of London.

Rovito S.M.,University of California at Berkeley | Rovito S.M.,Institute Biologia
Molecular Ecology | Year: 2010

Peripatric speciation and the importance of founder effects have long been controversial, and multilocus sequence data and coalescent methods now allow hypotheses of peripatric speciation to be tested in a rigorous manner. Using a multilocus phylogeographical data set for two species of salamanders (genus Hydromantes) from the Sierra Nevada of California, hypotheses of recent divergence by peripatric speciation and older, allopatric divergence were tested. Phylogeographical analysis revealed two divergent lineages within Hydromantes platycephalus, which were estimated to have diverged in the Pliocene. By contrast, a low-elevation species, Hydromantes brunus, diverged from within the northern lineage of H. platycephalus much more recently (mid-Pleistocene), during a time of major climatic change in the Sierra Nevada. Multilocus species tree estimation and coalescent estimates of divergence time, migration rate, and growth rate reject a scenario of ancient speciation of H. brunus with subsequent gene flow and introgression from H. platycephalus, instead supporting a more recent divergence with population expansion. Although the small, peripheral distribution of H. brunus suggests the possibility of peripatric speciation, the estimated founding population size of the species was too large to have allowed founder effects to be important in its divergence. These results provide evidence for both recent speciation, most likely tied to the climatic changes of the Pleistocene, and older lineage divergence, possibly due to geological events, and add to evidence that Pleistocene glacial cycles were an important driver of diversification in the Sierra Nevada. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Corte G.N.,Institute Biologia
Invertebrate Reproduction and Development | Year: 2015

The reproductive cycle and parasitism in the clam Anomalocardia brasiliana were studied in two different areas, an intermediate beach (Cidade) and a tidal flat (Araçá), in Southeast Brazil. Four gametogenic stages were described for males and females in both areas. Mature and spawning individuals were present throughout the period of study at Cidade and Araçá; however, major temporal differences were recorded between sites. Whereas only a few individuals in the resting stage were recorded at Cidade throughout the study period, resting stage individuals were frequent at Araçá. Moreover, a shorter period of gametogenesis was observed at Araçá than at Cidade. Oocyte number was the most effective parameter to differentiate gametogenic stages. An unidentified digenetic trematode was the only parasite infecting A. brasiliana at the study sites, and caused castration of all hosts. Parasite prevalence (proportion of infected hosts) was similar and low (ca 7.5%) at Cidade and Araçá and therefore is not expected to compromise the reproductive output of these populations. Comparison with data from previous studies suggests a latitudinal pattern for the reproductive biology of A. brasiliana, with resting stages occurring only at two high-latitude sites; however, no evidence was found for a latitudinal pattern of trematode prevalence in this species. © 2015 © 2015 Taylor & Francis.

A new species of the genus Diplocentrus Peters, 1861 is described, based on several specimens collected in the Mexican state of Oaxaca. It is characterized by a high telotarsal spiniform setae count (4- 5/5:5/6:6/6:6/6-7), and the pectinal tooth counts of 12-15, mode = 13 (male) or 11-13, mode = 12 (female). With the description of this species, the diversity of the genus is increased to 51 species in Mexico. © C.E. Santibáñez-López.

Ibarra-Cerdena C.N.,CINVESTAV | Zaldivar-Riveron A.,Institute Biologia | Peterson A.T.,University of Kansas | Sanchez-Cordero V.,Institute Biologia | Ramsey J.M.,Instituto Nacional Of Salud Publica Insp
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2014

The niche conservatism hypothesis states that related species diverge in niche characteristics at lower rates than expected, given their lineage divergence. Here we analyze whether niche conservatism is a common pattern among vector species (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) of Trypanosoma cruzi that inhabit North and Central America, a highly heterogeneous landmass in terms of environmental gradients. Mitochondrial and nuclear loci were used in a multi-locus phylogenetic framework to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships among species and estimate time of divergence of selected clades to draw biogeographic inferences. Then, we estimated similarity between the ecological niche of sister species and tested the niche conservatism hypothesis using our best estimate of phylogeny. Triatoma is not monophyletic. A primary clade with all North and Central American (NCA) triatomine species from the genera Triatoma, Dipetalogaster, and Panstrongylus, was consistently recovered. Nearctic species within the NCA clade (T. p. protracta, T. r. rubida) diverged during the Pliocene, whereas the Neotropical species (T. phyllosoma, T. longipennis, T. dimidiata complex) are estimated to have diverged more recently, during the Pleistocene. The hypothesis of niche conservatism could not be rejected for any of six sister species pairs. Niche similarity between sister species best fits a retention model. While this framework is used here to infer niche evolution, it has a direct impact on spatial vector dynamics driven by human population movements, expansion of transportation networks and climate change scenarios. © 2014 Ibarra-Cerdeña et al.

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