Sequerra E.B.,University of California at Davis |
Costa M.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte |
Menezes J.R.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro |
Hedin-Pereira C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro |
Hedin-Pereira C.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Development (Cambridge) | Year: 2013
During embryonic development, the telencephalon is specified along its axis through morphogenetic gradients, leading to the positional-dependent generation of multiple neuronal types. After embryogenesis, however, the fate of neuronal progenitors becomes more restricted, and they generate only a subset of neurons. Here, we review studies of postnatal and adult neurogenesis, challenging the notion that fixed genetic programs restrict neuronal fate. We hypothesize that the adult brain maintains plastic neural stem cells that are capable of responding to changes in environmental cues and generating diverse neuronal types. Thus, the limited diversity of neurons generated under normal conditions must be actively maintained by the adult milieu. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Barrias E.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro |
Barrias E.S.,Brazilian National Institute of Technology |
de Carvalho T.M.U.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro |
de Carvalho T.M.U.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2013
Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. This protozoan is an obligate intracellular parasite. The infective forms of the parasite are the metacyclic trypomastigotes, amastigotes, and bloodstream trypomastigotes. The recognition between the parasite and mammalian host cell, involves numerous molecules present in both cell types, and similar to several intracellular pathogens, T. cruzi is internalized by host cells via multiple endocytic pathways. Morphological studies demonstrated that after the interaction of the infective forms of T. cruzi with phagocytic or non-phagocytic cell types, plasma membrane (PM) protrusions can form, showing similarity with those observed during canonical phagocytosis or macropinocytic events. Additionally, several molecules known to be molecular markers of membrane rafts, macropinocytosis, and phagocytosis have been demonstrated to be present at the invasion site. These events may or may not depend on the host cell lysosomes and cytoskeleton. In addition, after penetration, components of the host endosomal-lysosomal system, such as early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes, participate in the formation of the nascent parasitophorous vacuole (PV). Dynamin, a molecule involved in vesicle formation, has been shown to be involved in the PV release from the host cell PM. This review focuses on the multiple pathways that T. cruzi can use to enter the host cells until complete PV formation. We will describe different endocytic processes, such as phagocytosis, macropinocytosis, and endocytosis using membrane microdomains and clathrin-dependent endocytosis and show results that are consistent with their use by this smart parasite. We will also discuss others mechanisms that have been described, such as active penetration and the process that takes advantage of cell membrane wound repair. © 2013 Barrias, de Carvalho and De Souza.
Bernardi R.C.,Brazilian National Institute of Technology |
Pascutti P.G.,Brazilian National Institute of Technology |
Pascutti P.G.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation | Year: 2012
Biomolecular dynamics studies using a QM/MM approach have been largely used especially to study enzymatic reactions. However, to the best of our knowledge, the very same approach has not been used to study the water/membrane interface using a quantum mechanical treatment for the lipids. Since a plethora of biochemical processes take place in this region, we believe that it is of primary importance to understand, at the level of molecular orbitals, the behavior of a drug in such an odd environment. In this work, we take advantage of an integration of the CPMD and the GROMACS code, using the Car-Parrinello method, to treat the benzocaine local anesthetic as well as two of the membrane lipids and the GROMOS force field to treat the remaining lipids and the water molecules. © 2012 American Chemical Society.
Mendonca-Previato L.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
Penha L.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
Garcez T.C.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
Jones C.,National Institute for Biological Standard and Control Potters Bar |
Previato J.O.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Glycoconjugate Journal | Year: 2013
Trypanosoma cruzi, an intracellular protozoan etiologic agent of Chagas disease is covered by a dense coat of mucin-type glycoproteins, which is important to promote the parasite entry and persistence in the mammalian host cells. The O-glycosylation of T. cruzi mucins (Tc-mucins) is initiated by enzymatic addition of α-O-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to threonine (Thr) by the UDP-GlcNAc:polypeptide α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (pp-α-GlcNAcT) in the Golgi. The Tc-mucin is characterized by the presence of a high structural diversity of O-linked oligosaccharides found among different parasite strains, comprising two O-glycan Cores. In the Core 1, from strains principally associated with the domestic transmission cycle of Chagas disease, the GlcNAc O-4 is substituted with a β-galactopyranose (βGalp) unit, and in the most complex oligosaccharides the GlcNAc O-6 is further processed by the addition of β1 → 2-linked Galp residues creating a short linear Galp-containing chain. In the Core 2 structures, expressed by strains isolated from T. cruzi sylvatic hosts, the GlcNAc O-4 carries a β-galactofuranose (βGalf) unit and the GlcNAc O-6 can carry a branched Galpβ1 → 3[Galpβ1 → 2]Galpβ1 → 6 motif. The O-glycans carrying nonreducing terminal βGalp are available for sialylation by a surface T. cruzi trans-sialidase activity. Based on structural results, this review summarizes available data on the highly conserved process, which adds the GlcNAc unit in α-linkage to Thr residues the basis of the post-translational modification system in T. cruzi mucins. In addition, a mechanism unique employed by the parasite to transfer exogenous sialic acid residues to Tc-mucins is presented. © 2013 The Author(s).
Sorbara M.T.,University of Toronto |
Ellison L.K.,University of Toronto |
Ramjeet M.,University of Toronto |
Ramjeet M.,bioMerieux |
And 5 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2013
The peptidoglycan sensor Nod2 and the autophagy protein ATG16L1 have been linked to Crohn's disease (CD). Although Nod2 and the related sensor, Nod1, direct ATG16L1 to initiate anti-bacterial autophagy, whether ATG16L1 affects Nod-driven inflammation has not been examined. Here, we uncover anunanticipated autophagy-independent role for ATG16L1 in negatively regulating Nod-driven inflammatory responses. Knockdown of ATG16L1 expression, but not that of ATG5 or ATG9a, specifically enhanced Nod-driven cytokine production. In addition, autophagy-incompetent truncated forms of ATG16L1 regulated Nod-driven cytokine responses. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that ATG16L1 interfered with poly-ubiquitination of the Rip2 adaptor and recruitment of Rip2 into large signaling complexes. The CD-associated allele of ATG16L1 was impaired in its ability to regulate Nod-driven inflammatory responses. Overall, these results suggest that ATG16L1 is critical for Nod-dependent regulation of cytokine responses and that disruption of this Nod1- or Nod2-ATG16L1 signaling axis could contribute to the chronic inflammation associated with CD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.
Queiroz R.M.d.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
Carvalho C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro |
Dias W.B.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2014
O-GlcNAcylation is an O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety linked to the serine or threonine residues in proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification involved in a wide range of biological processes and diseases such as cancer. This modification can increase and decrease the activity of enzymes as well as interfere with protein stability and interaction. The modulatory capacity of O-GlcNAcylation, as well as protein phosphorylation, is of paramount importance in the regulation of metabolism and intracellular signaling of tumor cells. Thus, understanding the regulation of O-GlcNAcylation in tumor cells and their difference compared to non-tumor cells may elucidate new mechanisms related to tumor generation and development, could provide a new marker to diagnosis and prognosis in patients with cancer and indicate a new target to cancer chemotherapy. © 2014 de Queiroz, Carvalho and Dias.
Chaves E.A.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
Chaves E.A.,Institute Bioquimica Medica |
Chaves E.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro |
Fortunato R.S.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
And 4 more authors.
Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology | Year: 2013
High doses of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) impair the cardioprotective effects of exercise against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) insult, possibly through cellular redox imbalance. Here, the effect of nandrolone decanoate (DECA) treatment on heart redox metabolism was investigated during I/R in sedentary and exercised rats. DECA treatment significantly reduced superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase activities in exercised rats after heart reperfusion. Catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were not affected by DECA in both sedentary and trained rats, regardless the I/R period. DECA also induced myocardial oxidative stress, as evidenced by the reduced levels of total reduced thiols after heart reperfusion in exercised rats treated with the anabolic steroid. These results indicate that cardiotoxic effects of supraphysiological doses of AAS involve reduced heart antioxidant capacity.
de Azevedo-Pereira R.L.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Stem cells and development | Year: 2011
Glycosylated mouse cystatin C (mCysC), an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine cathepsin proteases (CP), has been suggested as a cofactor of β-FGF to induce the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). To investigate the possible role of CP in neural differentiation, we treated embryoid bodies (EBs) with (i) E64, an inhibitor of papain-like CP and of calpains, (ii) an inhibitor of cathepsin L (iCatL), (iii) an inhibitor of calpains (iCalp), or (iv) cystatins, and their ability to differentiate into neural cells was assessed. We show that the inhibition of CP induces a significant increase in Pax6 expression in EBs, leading to an increase in the number of nestin-positive cells after 3 days. Fourteen days after E64 treatment, we observed increased numbers of β-III-tubulin-positive cells, showing greater percentage of immature neurons, and this feature persisted up to 24 days. At this point, we encountered higher numbers of neurons with inward Na(+) current compared with untreated EBs. Further, we show that mCysC and iCatL, but not unglycosylated egg white cystatin or iCalp, increased the numbers of NPCs. In contrast to E64 and iCatL, mCysC did not inhibit CP in EBs and its neural-inducing activity required β-FGF. We propose that the inhibition of CP induces the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into NPCs and neurons through a mechanism that is distinct from CysC-induced neural differentiation.
Ferrao-Filho A.d.S.,Instituto Oswaldo Cruz |
Soares M.C.S.,Federal University of Juiz de fora |
de Magalhaes V.F.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
Azevedo S.M.F.O.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2010
Bioassays using Daphnia pulex and Moina micrura were designed to detect cyanobacterial neurotoxins in raw water samples. Phytoplankton and cyanotoxins from seston were analyzed during 15 months in a eutrophic reservoir. Effective time to immobilize 50% of the exposed individuals (ET50) was adopted as the endpoint. Paralysis of swimming movements was observed between ∼0.5-3 h of exposure to lake water containing toxic cyanobacteria, followed by an almost complete recovery of the swimming activity within 24 h after being placed in control water. The same effects were observed in bioassays with a saxitoxin-producer strain of Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii isolated from the reservoir. Regression analysis showed significant relationships between ET50 vs. cell density, biomass and saxitoxins content, suggesting that the paralysis of Daphnia in lake water samples was caused by saxitoxins found in C. raciborskii. Daphnia bioassay was found to be a sensitive method for detecting fast-acting neurotoxins in natural samples, with important advantages over mouse bioassays. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Lucio K.A.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
da Rocha G.G.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
Moncao-Ribeiro L.C.,Institute Ciencias Biomedicas |
Fernandes J.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho |
And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2011
Background: Drug resistance, a process mediated by multiple mechanisms, is a critical determinant for treating lung cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpene present in several plants, is able to circumvent the mechanisms of drug resistance present in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and to induce their death. Principal Findings: OA decreased the cell viability of the NSCLC cell lines A459 and H460 despite the presence of active, multidrug-resistant (MDR) MRP1/ABCC1 proteins and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and survivin. These effects are due to apoptosis, as evidenced by the capacity of OA to induce fragmentation of DNA and activate caspase 3. Induction of NSCLC cell death by OA cannot be explained by inhibition of the MDR proteins, since treatment with triterpene had little or no effect on the activity or expression of MRP1. Moreover, treatment with OA had no effect on the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, but increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein Bax, altering the Bcl-2/Bax balance towards a pro-apoptotic profile. OA also decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein survivin. Furthermore, OA decreased the expression of the angiogenic vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and decreased the development of melanoma-induced lung metastasis. Conclusion: Our data provide a significant insight into the antitumoral and antimetastatic activity of OA in NSCLC and suggest that including OA in the NSCLC regimens may help to decrease the number of relapses and reduce the development of metastases. © 2011 Lúcio et al.