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Freguesia do Ribeirao da Ilha, Brazil

Sequerra E.B.,University of California at Davis | Costa M.R.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte | Menezes J.R.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Hedin-Pereira C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Hedin-Pereira C.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Development (Cambridge) | Year: 2013

During embryonic development, the telencephalon is specified along its axis through morphogenetic gradients, leading to the positional-dependent generation of multiple neuronal types. After embryogenesis, however, the fate of neuronal progenitors becomes more restricted, and they generate only a subset of neurons. Here, we review studies of postnatal and adult neurogenesis, challenging the notion that fixed genetic programs restrict neuronal fate. We hypothesize that the adult brain maintains plastic neural stem cells that are capable of responding to changes in environmental cues and generating diverse neuronal types. Thus, the limited diversity of neurons generated under normal conditions must be actively maintained by the adult milieu. © 2013. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd. Source

de Azevedo-Pereira R.L.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Stem cells and development | Year: 2011

Glycosylated mouse cystatin C (mCysC), an endogenous inhibitor of cysteine cathepsin proteases (CP), has been suggested as a cofactor of β-FGF to induce the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into neural progenitor cells (NPCs). To investigate the possible role of CP in neural differentiation, we treated embryoid bodies (EBs) with (i) E64, an inhibitor of papain-like CP and of calpains, (ii) an inhibitor of cathepsin L (iCatL), (iii) an inhibitor of calpains (iCalp), or (iv) cystatins, and their ability to differentiate into neural cells was assessed. We show that the inhibition of CP induces a significant increase in Pax6 expression in EBs, leading to an increase in the number of nestin-positive cells after 3 days. Fourteen days after E64 treatment, we observed increased numbers of β-III-tubulin-positive cells, showing greater percentage of immature neurons, and this feature persisted up to 24 days. At this point, we encountered higher numbers of neurons with inward Na(+) current compared with untreated EBs. Further, we show that mCysC and iCatL, but not unglycosylated egg white cystatin or iCalp, increased the numbers of NPCs. In contrast to E64 and iCatL, mCysC did not inhibit CP in EBs and its neural-inducing activity required β-FGF. We propose that the inhibition of CP induces the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells into NPCs and neurons through a mechanism that is distinct from CysC-induced neural differentiation. Source

Sorbara M.T.,University of Toronto | Ellison L.K.,University of Toronto | Ramjeet M.,University of Toronto | Ramjeet M.,bioMerieux | And 5 more authors.
Immunity | Year: 2013

The peptidoglycan sensor Nod2 and the autophagy protein ATG16L1 have been linked to Crohn's disease (CD). Although Nod2 and the related sensor, Nod1, direct ATG16L1 to initiate anti-bacterial autophagy, whether ATG16L1 affects Nod-driven inflammation has not been examined. Here, we uncover anunanticipated autophagy-independent role for ATG16L1 in negatively regulating Nod-driven inflammatory responses. Knockdown of ATG16L1 expression, but not that of ATG5 or ATG9a, specifically enhanced Nod-driven cytokine production. In addition, autophagy-incompetent truncated forms of ATG16L1 regulated Nod-driven cytokine responses. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that ATG16L1 interfered with poly-ubiquitination of the Rip2 adaptor and recruitment of Rip2 into large signaling complexes. The CD-associated allele of ATG16L1 was impaired in its ability to regulate Nod-driven inflammatory responses. Overall, these results suggest that ATG16L1 is critical for Nod-dependent regulation of cytokine responses and that disruption of this Nod1- or Nod2-ATG16L1 signaling axis could contribute to the chronic inflammation associated with CD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

Queiroz R.M.d.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho | Carvalho C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Dias W.B.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Frontiers in Oncology | Year: 2014

O-GlcNAcylation is an O-linked ß-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) moiety linked to the serine or threonine residues in proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post-translational modification involved in a wide range of biological processes and diseases such as cancer. This modification can increase and decrease the activity of enzymes as well as interfere with protein stability and interaction. The modulatory capacity of O-GlcNAcylation, as well as protein phosphorylation, is of paramount importance in the regulation of metabolism and intracellular signaling of tumor cells. Thus, understanding the regulation of O-GlcNAcylation in tumor cells and their difference compared to non-tumor cells may elucidate new mechanisms related to tumor generation and development, could provide a new marker to diagnosis and prognosis in patients with cancer and indicate a new target to cancer chemotherapy. © 2014 de Queiroz, Carvalho and Dias. Source

Mendonca-Previato L.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho | Penha L.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho | Garcez T.C.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho | Jones C.,National Institute for Biological Standard and Control Potters Bar | Previato J.O.,Institute Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho
Glycoconjugate Journal | Year: 2013

Trypanosoma cruzi, an intracellular protozoan etiologic agent of Chagas disease is covered by a dense coat of mucin-type glycoproteins, which is important to promote the parasite entry and persistence in the mammalian host cells. The O-glycosylation of T. cruzi mucins (Tc-mucins) is initiated by enzymatic addition of α-O-N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) to threonine (Thr) by the UDP-GlcNAc:polypeptide α-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase (pp-α-GlcNAcT) in the Golgi. The Tc-mucin is characterized by the presence of a high structural diversity of O-linked oligosaccharides found among different parasite strains, comprising two O-glycan Cores. In the Core 1, from strains principally associated with the domestic transmission cycle of Chagas disease, the GlcNAc O-4 is substituted with a β-galactopyranose (βGalp) unit, and in the most complex oligosaccharides the GlcNAc O-6 is further processed by the addition of β1 → 2-linked Galp residues creating a short linear Galp-containing chain. In the Core 2 structures, expressed by strains isolated from T. cruzi sylvatic hosts, the GlcNAc O-4 carries a β-galactofuranose (βGalf) unit and the GlcNAc O-6 can carry a branched Galpβ1 → 3[Galpβ1 → 2]Galpβ1 → 6 motif. The O-glycans carrying nonreducing terminal βGalp are available for sialylation by a surface T. cruzi trans-sialidase activity. Based on structural results, this review summarizes available data on the highly conserved process, which adds the GlcNAc unit in α-linkage to Thr residues the basis of the post-translational modification system in T. cruzi mucins. In addition, a mechanism unique employed by the parasite to transfer exogenous sialic acid residues to Tc-mucins is presented. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

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