Institute Biodiversidad Tropical

San Isidro, Costa Rica

Institute Biodiversidad Tropical

San Isidro, Costa Rica

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Rojas-Runjaic F.J.M.,Fundacion La Salle de Ciencias Naturales | Castroviejo-Fisher S.,American Museum of Natural History | Castroviejo-Fisher S.,Grande Rio University | Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Institute Biodiversidad Tropical
Check List | Year: 2013

Amazophrynella minuta is a small toad widely distributed in the lowlands and midlands of the Amazon and Guiana regions. Herein we report the first record of this species from Venezuela based on a single specimen from Raudal de Danto, Río Cuao, northwestern Amazonas state. This record extends the distribution of the species more than 500 km from the closest known localities in Colombia and Brazil. © 2013 Check List and Authors.


Pereyra M.O.,Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia | Baldo D.,National University of Misiones | Blotto B.L.,Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia | Blotto B.L.,University of Sao Paulo | And 8 more authors.
Cladistics | Year: 2016

The Rhinella granulosa group consists of 13 species of toads distributed throughout open areas of South America and Panama. In this paper we perform a phylogenetic analysis considering all but one species of the group, employing five nuclear and four mitochondrial genes, for up to 7910 bp per specimen. Separate phylogenetic analyses under direct optimization (DO) of nuclear and mitochondrial sequences recovered the R. granulosa group as monophyletic and revealed topological incongruence that can be explained mainly by multiple events of hybridization and introgression, both mitochondrial and nuclear. The DO combined analysis, after the exclusion of putatively introgressed or heterozygous genomes, resulted in a phylogenetic hypothesis for the R. granulosa group in which most of the species are recovered as monophyletic, but with interspecific relationships poorly supported. The optimization of morphological (adult and larval), chromosomal, and behavioural characters resulted in 12 putative phenotypic synapomorphies for this species group and some other synapomorphies for internal clades. Our results indicate the need for additional population genetic studies on R. dorbignyi and R. fernandezae to corroborate the taxonomic status of both taxa. Finally, we discuss biological and genetic characteristics of Bufonidae, as possible explanations for the common occurrence of hybridization and introgression observed in some lineages of this family. © 2016 The Willi Hennig Society.


Santos J.C.,University of British Columbia | Santos J.C.,National Evolutionary Synthesis Center | Baquero M.,Mississippi State University | Barrio-Amoros C.,Institute Biodiversidad Tropical | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2014

Multimodal signals facilitate communication with conspecifics during courtship, but they can also alert eavesdropper predators. Hence, signallers face two pressures: enticing partners to mate and avoiding detection by enemies. Undefended organisms with limited escape abilities are expected to minimize predator recognition over mate attraction by limiting or modifying their signalling. Alternatively, organisms with anti-predator mechanisms such as aposematism (i.e. unprofitability signalled by warning cues) might elaborate mating signals as a consequence of reduced predation. We hypothesize that calls diversified in association with aposematism. To test this, we assembled a large acoustic signal database for a diurnal lineage of aposematic and cryptic/non-defended taxa, the poison frogs. First, we showed that aposematic and non-aposematic species share similar extinction rates, and aposematic lineages diversify more and rarely revert to the nonaposematic phenotype. We then characterized mating calls based on morphological (spectral), behavioural/physiological (temporal) and environmental traits. Of these, only spectral and temporal features were associated with aposematism. We propose that with the evolution of antipredator defences, reduced predation facilitated the diversification of vocal signals, which then became elaborated or showy via sexual selection. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


Santos J.C.,University of British Columbia | Baquero M.,Mississippi State University | Barrio-Amoros C.,Institute Biodiversidad Tropical | Coloma L.A.,Centro Jambatu Of Investigacion Y Conservacion Of Anfibios | And 3 more authors.
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2014

Multimodal signals facilitate communication with conspecifics during courtship, but they can also alert eavesdropper predators. Hence, signallers face two pressures: enticing partners to mate and avoiding detection by enemies. Undefended organisms with limited escape abilities are expected to minimize predator recognition over mate attraction by limiting or modifying their signalling. Alternatively, organisms with anti-predator mechanisms such as aposematism (i.e. unprofitability signalled by warning cues) might elaborate mating signals as a consequence of reduced predation. We hypothesize that calls diversified in association with aposematism. To test this, we assembled a large acoustic signal database for a diurnal lineage of aposematic and cryptic/non-defended taxa, the poison frogs. First, we showed that aposematic and non-aposematic species share similar extinction rates, and aposematic lineages diversify more and rarely revert to the non-aposematic phenotype. We then characterized mating calls based on morphological (spectral), behavioural/physiological (temporal) and environmental traits. Of these, only spectral and temporal features were associated with aposematism. We propose that with the evolution of anti-predator defences, reduced predation facilitated the diversification of vocal signals, which then became elaborated or showy via sexual selection. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.


PubMed | University of Texas at Austin, Centro Jambatu Of Investigacion Y Conservacion Of Anfibios, University of British Columbia, National Institute of Amazonian Research and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Proceedings. Biological sciences | Year: 2014

Multimodal signals facilitate communication with conspecifics during courtship, but they can also alert eavesdropper predators. Hence, signallers face two pressures: enticing partners to mate and avoiding detection by enemies. Undefended organisms with limited escape abilities are expected to minimize predator recognition over mate attraction by limiting or modifying their signalling. Alternatively, organisms with anti-predator mechanisms such as aposematism (i.e. unprofitability signalled by warning cues) might elaborate mating signals as a consequence of reduced predation. We hypothesize that calls diversified in association with aposematism. To test this, we assembled a large acoustic signal database for a diurnal lineage of aposematic and cryptic/non-defended taxa, the poison frogs. First, we showed that aposematic and non-aposematic species share similar extinction rates, and aposematic lineages diversify more and rarely revert to the non-aposematic phenotype. We then characterized mating calls based on morphological (spectral), behavioural/physiological (temporal) and environmental traits. Of these, only spectral and temporal features were associated with aposematism. We propose that with the evolution of anti-predator defences, reduced predation facilitated the diversification of vocal signals, which then became elaborated or showy via sexual selection.


Brusquetti F.,Paulista University | Brusquetti F.,Institute Investigacion Biologica del Paraguay | Jansen M.,Senckenberg Forschungsinstitut und Naturmuseum | Barrio-Amoros C.,Institute Biodiversidad Tropical | And 2 more authors.
Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2014

Scinax fuscomarginatus, Scinax parkeri, Scinax trilineatus, Scinax lutzorum, and Scinax pusillus are morphologically similar species with controversial taxonomy associated with open formations of South America east of the Andes. We used external morphology, advertisement call, and molecular sequences to assess the taxonomy of these species. Phylogenetic analysis of molecular data showed a well-supported monophyletic group divided into two main clades and several subclades. Specimens of Hyla madeirae (synonym of S.fuscomarginatus) and those from Serra do Cachimbo correspond to distinct subclades, whereas the currently valid species were grouped into a single clade. This clade showed a marked substructure, but concordance of the recognized species to subclades was limited, showing S.fuscomarginatus to be paraphyletic with respect to S.parkeri, S.trilineatus, S.lutzorum, and S.pusillus. The high intrapopulation and intraspecific variation found in morphological characters did not allow us to differentiate amongst the currently recognized species. Similarly, none of them was distinguishable by morphometric analysis or advertisement call. Based on multiple evidence, we propose the synonymy of S.parkeri, S.trilineatus, S.lutzorum, and S.pusillus with S.fuscomarginatus, the revalidation of H. madeirae, and describe the specimens from Serra do Cachimbo as a new species. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London.


Jadin R.C.,University of Colorado at Boulder | Jadin R.C.,Northeastern Illinois University | Burbrink F.T.,City University of New York | Burbrink F.T.,CUNY - College of Staten Island | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research | Year: 2014

The genus Pseustes Fitzinger, 1843 is composed of three recognized species, Pseustes poecilonotus, P. shropshirei and P. sulphureus, which may be the largest sized colubrid snake in the New World. The group has a complex systematic history that has yet to be untangled using modern molecular phylogenetic approaches. The systematic position, within-group diversity and distribution are therefore uncertain. We obtained samples of four species from multiple specimens across their distribution and analysed one nuclear and two mitochondrial genes to determine the phylogenetic placement of the genus and infer relationships among Pseustes lineages. We find strong support for the paraphyly of Pseustes with respect to the monotypic genus Spilotes, both of which are nested within a clade of at least 23 other New World Colubrinae genera. Based on our results, we formally revise the taxonomy of P. poecilonotus and P. sulphureus, resurrecting the taxon P. polylepis for populations of P. poecilonotus from South America and allocating P. sulphureus to the genus Spilotes which renders both genera monophyletic. Additionally, we identify two lineages that are putatively new and currently unrecognized species. Finally, the placement of P. sulphureus, the type species of Pseustes, in the genus Spilotes, requires the allocation of the senior synonym Phrynonax be considered for the remaining Pseustes taxa. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.


Rivas G.A.,University of Zulia | Molina C.R.,Central University of Venezuela | Ugueto G.N.,Jockey Club | Barros T.R.,University of Zulia | And 3 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

We update the list of reptiles of Venezuela, reporting a total of 370 species from the country (four of these exotic), arranged in 122 genera (one exotic), 30 families and three orders. Introduced species and dubious or erroneous records are discussed. Taxonomic, nomenclatural and distributional comments are provided when required. Considering species of probable occurrence in the country (known to occur in Colombia, Brazil and Guyana at localities very close to the Venezuelan border) and still undescribed taxa, we estimate that the total number of species in Venezuela could exceed 400. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.


Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Institute Biodiversidad Tropical | Santos J.C.,University of Texas at Austin | Santos J.C.,National Evolutionary Synthesis Center
Salamandra | Year: 2011

Dendrobates rufulus Gorzula, 1990 is a poorly known dendrobatid, described from two specimens from the Chimantá Massif in the Venezuelan Guayana. We redescribe it based on six additional specimens and allocate this species to the genus Anomaloglossus. We also provide data on natural history, such as ecology, habitat, and vocalization. © 2011 Deutsche Gesellschaft für Herpetologie und Terrarienkunde e.V. (DGHT), Rheinbach, Germany.


Kok P.J.R.,Vrije Universiteit Brussel | Kok P.J.R.,Royal Belgian Institute Of Natural Sciences | Barrio-Amoros C.L.,Institute Biodiversidad Tropical
Zootaxa | Year: 2013

The type series of Pristimantis guaiquinimensis (Schlüter and Rödder, 2007), P. tepuiensis (Schlüter and Rödder, 2007) and P. stegolepis (Schlüter and Rödder, 2007) have been thoroughly examined. We highlight a number of discrepancies in the original descriptions that do not support the recognition of P. stegolepis and P. tepuiensis as valid species. We demonstrate that P. stegolepis should be considered a junior synonym of P. vilarsi (Melin, 1941), and that P. tepuiensis should be considered a junior synonym of P. guaiquinimensis. We also point out that the sex of the holotype and paratype of P. guaiquinimensis have been wrongly determined. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press.

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