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Rodriguez-Ramirez A.,University of Huelva | Villarias-Robles J.J.R.,Institute Lengua | Perez-Asensio J.N.,University of Barcelona | Santos A.,University of Huelva | And 3 more authors.
Geomorphology | Year: 2016

Analysis of the geological record has made it possible to delimit for the Guadalquivir estuary the traces of extreme wave events (EWEs) during the Roman period in the Iberian Peninsula (218 BCE to 476 CE). The largest event occurred in the 2nd-3rd century CE. It generated clearly visible erosive effects in the coastal barriers, including washover fans and erosional scarps. In the inner estuary, however, the effects were minor: crevasse splays that broke levees and cheniers, as well as a residual sedimentary lag. The significant development of the spits protected the inner estuary from the marine incursion, which only caused a water level rise with low-regime waves. Correlation of the geomorphological and sedimentary marks left by this event with the archaeological and geological evidence of other events recognized elsewhere in the Gulf of Cadiz effectively argues for a tsunami as to the nature of the 2nd-3rd century CE event. Yet this and the other identified EWEs in the Guadalquivir estuary during the pre-Roman and the Roman period all fit a model of paleogeographic evolution dominated by processes of coastal progradation and estuarine infilling. Radiocarbon dating, geomorphological analysis, and historical references fail to warrant the so-called '218-209 BCE' Atlantic tsunami, as hypothesized in the received scientific literature. In pre-Roman and Roman times, human occupation at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River was strongly influenced by various geodynamic processes, the location of the settlements being contingent upon dependable, fast communication with the sea and, above all, upon adequate protection from EWEs, on the leeward side of spits. Progressive progradation of these coastal barriers combined with the gradual infilling of the estuary to make navigation to open sea increasingly difficult and, eventually, to result in the abandonment of settlements. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Rodriguez-Ramirez A.,University of Huelva | Perez-Asensio J.N.,University of Geneva | Santos A.,University of Huelva | Jimenez-Moreno G.,University of Granada | And 7 more authors.
Quaternary Research (United States) | Year: 2015

A multidisciplinary study from a number of drilled cores in the Guadalquivir estuary has made possible to identify as many as three extreme wave events and their facies in the 4th millennium BP (A: ~. 4000. cal. yr BP, B: ~. 3550. cal. yr BP, and C: ~. 3150. cal. yr BP). These events, which caused strong erosion in the Guadalquivir sandy barrier and in the neighboring aeolian systems of El Abalario, brought about significant paleogeographical changes that may have affected human settlements established in the area during the Neolithic and Copper Age periods and during the Middle Bronze Age. The three events can be spatially correlated and their facies differentiated from more proximal to more distal from the coastline. The most proximal facies is characterized by a massive accumulation of shells, a sandy or sandy-muddy matrix, an erosive base, a highly diverse mixture of species (marine and estuarine), and lithoclasts. The most distal facies presents a muddy-sandy matrix, dominance of estuarine fauna, shell accumulation, presence of terrestrial species, mudpebbles, pebbles in a clayey matrix, and bioturbation. The evidence presented will further advance scientific knowledge about the impact of extreme wave events on coastal areas in SW Iberia and NW Africa. © 2014 University of Washington.


Rodriguez-Ramirez A.,University of Huelva | Flores-Hurtado E.,Espacio Natural de Donana | Contreras C.,University of Huelva | Villarias-Robles J.J.R.,Institute Lengua | And 6 more authors.
Geomorphology | Year: 2014

A multidisciplinary analysis of cores and geomorphic patterns in the marshes of Doñana National Park (SW Spain) has yielded new evidence regarding the sedimentary infilling and geomorphological evolution of the Guadalquivir estuary during the Holocene. The sedimentation and geomorphological disposition have been strongly conditioned by neotectonic activity along a set of SW-NE alignments, interrupted by other alignments that follow E-W and NW-SE directions. The most conspicuous of the SW-NE alignments is the Torre Carbonero-Marilópez Fault (TCMF). South of this fault, the estuary experienced a marked subsidence from about 4000 to 2000. cal. yr BP through a series of sedimentary sequences of retrogradation and aggradation within the context of relative sea-level rise. From c. 2000. cal. yr BP to the present the subsidence has remained relatively dormant, with progradation of the littoral systems and infilling of the marshland progressing within a context of sea-level stability. Our results reveal that neotectonic activity is a critical factor that must also be reckoned with in any attempt to understand the Holocene geomorphological evolution in the Guadalquivir estuary. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Jimenez-Moreno G.,University of Granada | Rodriguez-Ramirez A.,University of Huelva | Perez-Asensio J.N.,University of Geneva | Carrion J.S.,University of Murcia | And 6 more authors.
Holocene | Year: 2015

A detailed pollen analysis has been carried out on two sediment cores taken from a marsh area located in the Doñana National Park, southwestern Spain. The studied sedimentary sequences contain a similar late Holocene record of vegetation and climate and show a progressive aridification trend since at least 5000 cal. yr BP, through a decrease in forest cover in this area. Long-term vegetation changes shown here (semi-desert expansion and Mediterranean forest decline) paralleled declining summer insolation. Decreasing summer insolation most likely impacted negatively on tree growing season as well as on winter precipitation in the area. Superimposed on the long-term aridification trend were multi-centennial scale periods characterized by forest reductions or increases in arid and halophytic plants that can be interpreted as produced by enhanced droughts and/or by local geodynamic processes. These are centered at ca. 4000, 3000–2500, and 1000 cal. yr BP, coinciding in timing and duration with well-known dry events in the western Mediterranean and other areas but could have also been generated by local sedimentary or geodynamic processes such as a marine transgression in a subsidence context and extreme wave events (EWEs). The alternation of persistent North Atlantic Oscillation modes probably played an important role in controlling these relatively humid–arid cycles. © The Author(s) 2015


Anfuso G.,University of Cádiz | Martinez-Del-Pozo J.A.,Institute Arqueologia Of Merida | Rangel-Buitrago N.,University of the Atlantic | Nachite D.,Abdelmalek Essaadi University
Landbauforschung Volkenrode | Year: 2014

Geomorphologie information, topographic maps (dated 1967), aerial photographs (dated from 1999 to 2008), and spatial analysis procedures were used to investigate a 90 km long coastal sector in South Sicily (Italy). Information was obtained on coastal erosion/accretion areas, global sediment circulation pattern and littoral cells distribution. Human-made structures and natural headlands constituted important artificial limits dividing littoral in morphological cells. Ports and marinas were observed at Scoglitti, Punta Secca, Marina di Ragusa, Donnalucata and Pozzallo. Most of them worked as "transit" limits which interrupted predominant, eastward directed sedimentary transport, this way generating accretion in updrifi (west) side of mentioned structures and erosion in downdrift (east) side. During the 1967-2008 period, about 62,000 m2 and 42,000 m2 of beach surface were respectively formed updrifi of Scoglitti and Donnalucata ports. The construction of Pozzallo port gave rise to the formation of a "convergent" limit which favoured large accretion (94,000 m2) east of port structure. Most important natural structures were observed at Punta Zafaglione, Punta Braccetto and Cava d'Aliga. The knowledge of littoral cells distribution acquires a great importance for appropriate management of coastal erosion processes which may be mitigated installing by-passing systems in ports and marinas and carrying out nourishment works in eroding areas, often located downdrift of mentioned structures (when they work as transit limits) and in central part of littoral cells (when they work as convergent limits).


Anfuso G.,University of Cádiz | Del Pozo J.A.M.,Institute Arqueologia Of Merida | Buitrago N.R.,University of Cádiz | Nachite D.,Abdelmalek Essaadi University
Geomorphologie: Relief, Processus, Environnement | Year: 2014

Geom orphologic inform ation, topographic m aps (dated 1 967 ), aerial photographs (dated from 1 999 to 2 008), and spatial analysis procedures were used to investigate a 90 km long coastal sector in South Sicily (Italy ). Information was obtained on coastal erosion/accretion areas, global sediment circulation pattern and littoral cells distribution. Hum an-m ade structures and natural headlands constituted important artificial limits dividing littoral in m orphological cells. Ports and m arinas were observ ed at Scoglitti, Punta Secca, Marina di Ragusa, Donnalucata and Pozzallo. Most of them worked as "transit" limits which interrupted predom inant, eastward directed sedim entary transport, this way generating accretion in updrift (west) side of m entioned structures and erosion in downdrift (east) side. During the 1 967 -2 008 period, about 62 ,000 m 2 and 42 ,000 m 2 of beach surface were respectiv ely form ed updrift of Scoglitti and Donnalucata ports. The construction of Pozzallo port gav e rise to the form ation of a "conv ergent" lim it which fav oured large accretion (94,000 m 2) east of port structure. Most im portant natural structures were observ ed at Punta Zafaglione, Punta Braccetto and Cav a d'Aliga. The knowledge of littoral cells distribution acquires a great im portance for appropriate m anagem ent of coastal erosion processes which may be mitigated installing by -passing sy stem s in ports and m arinas and carry ing out nourishm ent works in eroding areas, often located downdrift of m entioned structures (when they work as transit lim its) and in central part of littoral cells (when they work as conv ergent lim its).


Nowadays in the ancient Lusitanian capital it is possible to examine, besides the architectural remains of his public buildings and a set of a splendid mosaics in domestic areas, the evidences of other local productions to which till now it had not been granted to them any interest. In the present work we announce a synthesis of the archaeological existing evidences of the Emeritan craft during the ss. I-IV AD. This theme had been checked in an isolated and sporadic way. Here we value the structures, productive manners and possible evidences of the workforce. The constant excavations developed in the last decades have extracted to the light 33 ceramic ovens, 2 food mills, 7 fullonicae, 1 officina infectae, 4 glass workshops, 1 lanifricaria, 2 workshops of bone, 2 pistrinae, 2 metallurgical furnaces and 3 lime furnaces that allow the development of studies of certain importance. The textile industry, ceramic, nutritious or metallurgical are analyzed from a point of archaeologic view. Since then it has been possible to establish a distribution map of the different manufacturing areas and of its possible zones of influence.

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