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Velasco-Fernandez R.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Ramos-Martin J.,Institute Altos Estudios Nacionales | Giampietro M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Giampietro M.,Catalan Institution for Research and Advanced Studies
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews | Year: 2015

This paper presents a comparison of the changes in the energetic metabolic pattern of China and India, the two most populated countries in the world, with two economies undergoing an important economic transition. The comparison of the changes in the energetic metabolic pattern has the scope to characterize and explain a bifurcation in their evolutionary path in the recent years, using the Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM) approach. The analysis shows an impressive transformation of China's energy metabolism determined by the joining of the WTO in 2001. Since then, China became the largest factory of the world with a generalized capitalization of all sectors, especially the industrial sector, boosting economic labor productivity as well as total energy consumption. India, on the contrary, lags behind when considering these factors. Looking at changes in the household sector (energy metabolism associated with final consumption) in the case of China, the energetic metabolic rate (EMR) soared in the last decade, also thanks to a reduced growth of population, whereas in India it remained stagnant for the last 40 years. This analysis indicates a big challenge for India for the next decade. In the light of the data analyzed both countries will continue to require strong injections of technical capital requiring a continuous increase in their total energy consumption. When considering the size of these economies it is easy to guess that this may induce a dramatic increase in the price of energy, an event that at the moment will penalize much more the chance of a quick economic development of India. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Sierra J.C.,Institute Altos Estudios Nacionales
Energy Policy | Year: 2016

Road transport is one of the sectors with highest energy consumptions in the planet, with large dependence of fossil fuels, and contribution for global greenhouse gas emissions. Although, Latin America is not a high-energy consumer, its share in global consumption is expected to grow, especially in the transportation sector. This make essential for developing countries the adoption of better policies to identify the vehicle groups with largest fuel demands. The present study describes the VKT technique to disaggregate road transport energy consumption by vehicle type, applied to the road transportation system of Ecuador. It also describes the procedures performed to estimate the variables required to run the model, and some of the practical applications that be used to create public policies. Results show as the biggest fuel consumers the heavy-duty freight cargo, followed by light duty vehicles. The estimation of greenhouse gas emissions evidence that road transport released 14.3 million tons of CO2 in 2012. When fuel consumption is compared by it costs, it can be confirmed that Ecuadorean Government covered, through subsidies, for 68% of the annual fuel costs of national road transport, demonstrating the importance of restructuring these expenditures in order to achieve an efficient road transport system. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Melo C.J.,Florida International University | Melo C.J.,Institute Altos Estudios Nacionales | Hollander G.M.,Florida International University
Journal of Rural Studies | Year: 2013

Although alternative trade have become a de facto prescription for any location where there is a need to conciliate economic interest with conservation imperatives, the discursive concept of equalitarian partnerships hides the fact that what for consumers is a matter of choice, for producers is a matter of survival. Producers must meet the demands of their partners to gain access to capital and markets. We explore the results of these unequal alliances with a case study centered on the experiences of the Ecuadorian Federation of Cocoa Producers (FEDECADE) and its 15 years long experience with alternative trade/sustainable development projects focused on the shade-grown fine cocoa variety known as "Nacional." We found that the external agencies that implemented alternative trade in FEDECADE made assumptions, none of which were fully meet at the end of the projects. Our findings point out to the paradoxical nature of alternative trade schemes, because the success of a scheme ultimately leads to loss of profitability from a farmer's perspective. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Wilson J.,Institute Altos Estudios Nacionales
Globalizations | Year: 2015

Abstract: The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are often critiqued as a strategy of social engineering. This analysis would seem to be supported by the case of the Millennium Villages Project (MVP), the world's leading programme for the achievement of the MDGs. At the level of its discursive articulation, the MVP appears as a scientific ‘proof of concept’ for the comprehensive engineering of neoliberal social orders. But its evaluation methodology has been widely criticised for a lack of scientific rigour, and field research that I conducted in the Ruhiira Millennium Village in Uganda in 2013 revealed serious problems of implementation. I argue that the MVP is better understood not as a strategy of social engineering but as the staging of a social fantasy in which the constitutive antagonisms of capitalist development are concealed. In this fantasy space, the MDGs function to fill the gap between the promise of development and the impossibility of capitalism without poverty. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Khatun K.,Institute Altos Estudios Nacionales | Corbera E.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Ball S.,Mpingo Conservation and Development Initiative
ORYX | Year: 2016

A project combining participatory forest management and REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation) is underway in south-eastern Tanzania. It introduces early burning practices to reduce the number and (heat) intensity of wild and late-season fires, to develop robust carbon accounting methods. Our analysis considers the causes of forest fires, and local people's knowledge of the early burning process and its impacts on livelihoods, through the development of early burning activities as a potential source of carbon revenue. Some of the difficulties of implementation have been resolved over time (e.g. the premature introduction of carbon contracts), whereas others remain: there are inequalities in knowledge, awareness and participation in early burning and the broader REDD+ process at village level. A more structured approach to early burning, with well-publicized advance planning, that includes all community members and subvillages would make a significant difference. Further challenges exist in the form of both legal and illegal hunting, a cause of forest fires that could undermine the early burning process. We argue that the long-term commitment of project managers to gain detailed knowledge of social–ecological systems, forest governance and local politics is required to successfully develop this and other similar REDD+ projects. Copyright © Fauna & Flora International 2016

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