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Scavuzzo C.M.,Institute Altos Estudios Espaciales Mario Gulich | Introini M.V.,Misterio de Salud de la Nacion | Zaidenberg M.,Misterio de Salud de la Nacion
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2011

Dengue has affected the north provinces of Argentina, mainly Salta province. The 2009 outbreak, with 5 deaths and >27,000 infected, was the most important, and the first to extend into the central area of the country. This article includes research on seasonal Aedes aegypti abundance variation in Orán City (Salta province), and determination of the date of mosquito population increase and an estimation of the date of maximum rate of increase as well as the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r), to detect the optimal time to apply vector control measures. Between September 2005 and March 2007, ovitraps were randomly distributed in the city to collect Ae. aegypti eggs. The variation observed in the number of collected eggs was described by fitting a third-degree polynomial by the least square method, allowing to determine the time when population increase began (week 1), after the temperate and dry season. Eggs were collected throughout the year, with the highest variation in abundance during the warm and rainy season, and the maximum value registered in February 2007. The rate of increase of the number of eggs laid per week peaked between weeks 9 and 10 after the beginning of the population increase (week 1). Week 1 depends on temperature, it occurs after getting over the thermal threshold and the needed accumulation of 160 degree-day is reached. Consequently, week 1 changes depending on temperature. Peak abundance of eggs during 2005-2006 was recorded on week 15 (after week 1); during 2006-2007, the peak was observed on week 22. Estimation of the intrinsic rate of natural increase (r) of Ae. aegypti is useful not only to determine optimal time to apply vector control measures with better cost-benefit, but also to add an insecticide control strategy against the vector to diminish the possibility of resistance. © Copyright 2011, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2011. Source

Estallo E.L.,National University of Cordoba | Luduena-Almeida F.,National University of Cordoba | Scavuzzo C.M.,Institute Altos Estudios Espaciales Mario Gulich | Zaidenberg M.,Coordinacion Nacional de Control de Vectores | And 2 more authors.
Revista de Saude Publica | Year: 2011

The study aimed to determinate the maximum daily peak of Aedes aegypti oviposition in the city of Oran, northwestern Argentina. Biweekly samplings were taken between November 2006 and February 2007 (spring-summer). The city was divided into three areas (north, center, and south) and households were randomly selected. Two ovitraps were placed outdoors in the selected houses. Ovitraps were replaced every four hours, from morning (8 a.m.) to late afternoon (8 p.m.). The largest number of eggs was recorded between 4 p.m. and 8 p.m. (81%). These findings enhance our understanding of the vector and thus its control such as spraying during the hours of peak oviposition activity. Source

Estallo E.L.,National University of Cordoba | Carbajo A.E.,National University of San Martin of Argentina | Grech M.G.,National University of Patagonia San Juan Bosco | Frias-Cespedes M.,Direccion de Epidemiologia | And 4 more authors.
Acta Tropica | Year: 2014

During 2009 the biggest dengue epidemic to date occurred in Argentina, affecting almost half the country. We studied the spatio-temporal dynamics of the outbreak in the second most populated city of the country, Córdoba city. Confirmed cases and the results of an Aedes aegypti monitoring during the outbreak were geolocated. The imported cases began in January, and the autochthonous in March. Thirty-three percent of the 130 confirmed cases were imported, and occurred mainly at the center of the city. The autochthonous cases were more frequent in the outskirts, specially in the NE and SE. Aedes aegypti infestation showed no difference between neighborhoods with or without autochthonous cases, neither between neighborhoods with autochthonous vs. imported cases. The neighborhoods with imported cases presented higher population densities. The majority of autochthonous cases occurred at ages between 25 and 44 years old. Cases formed a spatio-temporal cluster of up to 20 days and 12. km. According to a mathematical model that estimates the required number of days needed for transmission according to daily temperature, the number of cases begun to fall when more than 15.5 days were needed. This may be a coarse estimation of mean mosquito survival in the area, provided that the study area is close to the global distribution limit of the vector, and that cases prevalence was very low. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Alemandri V.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Rodriguez Pardina P.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Izaurralde J.,Institute Altos Estudios Espaciales Mario Gulich | Garcia Medina S.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | And 5 more authors.
AgriScientia | Year: 2012

Since the 1990s geminiviruses have emerged as devastating pathogens in tropical and subtropical regions as well as in temperate regions. Recent studies accomplished molecular hybridization-based detection of three begomoviruses infecting soybean and bean crops in Argentina, Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV), Soybean blistering mosaic virus (SbBMV) and Tomato yellow spot virus (ToYSV). The aims of the present study were to determine incidence and prevalence of the three known geminiviruses in soybean and bean crops in Argentina following the same procedure and to characterize the sites where Bemisia tabaci-geminivirus complex was found based on climate data. The highest incidence values were observed in Salta province. BGMV exhibited the highest prevalence and incidence values in the bean crop, followed by SbBMV. In the soybean crop, SbBMV showed the highest prevalence and incidence values, followed by ToYSV. One hundred and three soybean and bean plots distributed in Argentina, where the Bemisia tabaci-geminivirus complex was detected, were characterized employing a Geographic Information System (GIS). The complex was found in warm and low rainfall areas; these climatic characteristics are consistent with those identified in a previously described model. A map with the probability of occurrence of B. tabaci-geminivirus, based on the climatic characteristics, was obtained. Source

The theoretical formulation of the Green-Ampt infiltration model has been extended to conditions of decreasing flooding depth in an isolated system. By defining dimensionless variables of flooding depth s and time τ, an implicit dimensionless equation τ(s) was obtained, which contains a single fundamental dimensionless parameter γ controlling the process, named "infiltration delay parameter". The characteristics and functional behaviour of γ were analysed, and its physical meaning discussed. A parametric expression s(τ) has been obtained, which uses a unique descriptive parameter a, which in turn depends only on γ and on four generic coefficients valid for a wide range of soil properties and conditions occurring in nature. By means of numerical simulations using different values of soil parameters and initial flooding depths, it was proved that the proposed parametric function generates similar infiltration rates and cumulative storages to those that are obtained starting from Darcy's equation in the extended Green-Ampt scheme. © 2011 Copyright IAHS Press. Source

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