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De Fernandez D.M.,Sa Institute Altos Estudios Dr Arnoldo Gabaldon | Bastidas B. D.M.,Sa Institute Altos Estudios Dr Arnoldo Gabaldon | Acosta L.E.F.,Sa Institute Altos Estudios Dr Arnoldo Gabaldon
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental | Year: 2013

In Venezuela, malathion has been widely used continuously in control programs for Aedes aegypti. Therefore, a study in mosquitoes from urban areas with high dengue casuistry in the states of Amazonas, Aragua, Bolivar, Lara, Merida and Zulia was conducted to determine the status of this vector susceptibility to malathion, compared with the reference susceptible strain, Rockefeller. Bioassays were done on bottles treated with the insecticide malathion, 100ug/mL evaluating the diagnostic doses in 30 minutes and biochemical assays in microplates were performed to determine metabolic mechanisms associated with status against insecticide. The bioassay results showed that there is malathion susceptibility, which was confirmed by biochemical tests. However, significant differences were found among all strains assessed values of P<0.005 for esterases alpha (?), beta esterases (?) and standard acetylcholinesterase (AChe) and inhibited acetylcholinesterase (Achei). The mean comparison test of Bonferroni showed similarity between the strains Rock, Amazon and Lara for esterases ? and ?. Similarity was found between the strains Rock, Bolivar and Zulia for the Ache and Achei tests. This study concludes that malathion showed its potential use in controlling the dengue vector in the locations evaluated.

Moreno J.E.,Sa Institute Altos Estudios Dr Arnoldo Gabaldon | Martinez A.,Institute Salud Publica del estado Bolivar | Acevedo P.,Institute Salud Publica del estado Bolivar | Sanchez V.,Sa Institute Altos Estudios Dr Arnoldo Gabaldon | And 4 more authors.
Boletin de Malariologia y Salud Ambiental | Year: 2014

The Sifontes municipality in Bolivar state is the principal malaria-endemic region in Venezuela. During the five years prior to the study an annual average of 14,000 cases was reported reaching an epidemic level of 19,408 cases in 2009. As part of the search for vector control measures that could be used as alternatives to insecticides, a commercial formulation of Bacillus sphaericus Neide (VectoLex® CG 7.5%) was evaluated. Between May 2010 and May 2011 monthly dosages of 20-30 kg/ha of Vectolex were sprayed using a motorized backpack (Solo®) in larval Anopheles darlingi, An. marajoara and An. nuneztovari habitats close to houses in four communities in the parish of San Isidro, Sifontes municipality. In parallel, adult anophelines were captured using human baits, CDC light traps and ultraviolet light traps. After 48 weeks of application there was an 80% reduction in malaria as well as a decrease in larval density demonstrating the effectiveness of B. sphaericus for the control of this disease. Moreover, the results suggest that larval prevalence is good indicator for biolarvicide based malaria control programs whereas the abundance of adults, which does not correlate with larval abundance, is not. This is the first time that the effectiveness of B. sphaericus for malaria control has been evaluated in Venezuela. These results show that spraying larval habitats for malaria control can be effective when integrated with other vector control strategies if the treatment is selective and carried out at the correct frequency and dosage in order to ensure adequate coverage of the larval habitat.

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