Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos

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Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos

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Llopis S.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Querol A.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Heyken A.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | Hube B.,Leibniz Institute for Natural Product Research and Infection Biology | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2012

Background: In recent years an increasing number of yeast infections in humans have been related to certain clinical isolates of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Some clinical strains showed in vivo and in vitro virulence traits and were able to cause death in mice whereas other clinical strains were avirulent.Results: In this work, we studied the transcriptional profiles of two S. cerevisiae clinical strains showing virulent traits and two control non-virulent strains during a blood incubation model and detected a specific transcriptional response of clinical strains. This response involves an mRNA levels increase of amino acid biosynthesis genes and especially oxidative stress related genes. We observed that the clinical strains were more resistant to reactive oxygen species in vitro. In addition, blood survival of clinical isolates was high, reaching similar levels to pathogenic Candida albicans strain. Furthermore, a virulent strain mutant in the transcription factor Yap1p, unable to grow in oxidative stress conditions, presented decreased survival levels in human blood compared with the wild type or YAP1 reconstituted strain.Conclusions: Our data suggest that this enhanced oxidative stress response in virulent clinical isolates, presumably induced in response to oxidative burst from host defense cells, is important to increase survival in human blood and can help to infect and even produce death in mice models. © 2012 Llopis et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Perez-Torrado R.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Perez-Torrado R.,University of Valencia | Barrio E.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Barrio E.,University of Valencia | Querol A.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

Wine fermentation has not significantly changed since ancient times and the most traditional aspects are seen by the market as elements that uplift wine nuances and quality. In recent years, new trends have emerged from the sector in line with consumer preferences, and due to the effects of global climate change on grape ripening. In the first cases, the consumers are looking for wines with less ethanol and fruitier aromas and in the second cases the wineries want to reduce the wine alcohol levels and/or astringency. New yeast starters of alternative Saccharomyces species and their hybrids can help to solve some problems that wineries face. In this article we review several physiological and genetic aspects of S. uvarum and S. kudriavzevii and the hybrids, which are especially relevant during the winemaking process, such as their good fermentative capabilities at low temperatures, resulting in wines with lower alcohol and higher glycerol amounts. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC


Tronchoni J.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Medina V.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Guillamon J.M.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Querol A.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Perez-Torrado R.,CSIC - Institute of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Technology
BMC Genomics | Year: 2014

Background: Comparative transcriptomics and functional studies of different Saccharomyces species have opened up the possibility of studying and understanding new yeast abilities. This is the case of yeast adaptation to stress, in particular the cold stress response, which is especially relevant for the food industry. Since the species Saccharomyces kudriavzevii is adapted to grow at low temperatures, it has been suggested that it contains physiological adaptations that allow it to rapidly and efficiently acclimatise after cold shock. Results: In this work, we aimed to provide new insights into the molecular basis determining this better cold adaptation of S. kudriavzevii strains. To this end, we have compared S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii transcriptome after yeast adapted to cold shock. The results showed that both yeast mainly activated the genes related to translation machinery by comparing 12°C with 28°C, but the S. kudriavzevii response was stronger, showing an increased expression of dozens of genes involved in protein synthesis. This suggested enhanced translation efficiency at low temperatures, which was confirmed when we observed increased resistance to translation inhibitor paromomycin. Finally, 35S-methionine incorporation assays confirmed the increased S. kudriavzevii translation rate after cold shock. Conclusions: This work confirms that S. kudriavzevii is able to grow at low temperatures, an interesting ability for different industrial applications. We propose that this adaptation is based on its enhanced ability to initiate a quick, efficient translation of crucial genes in cold adaptation among others, a mechanism that has been suggested for other microorganisms. © 2014 Tronchoni et al.


Perez-Traves L.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Querol A.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Perez-Torrado R.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2016

Several wine quality aspects are influenced by yeast mannoproteins on account of aroma compounds retention, lactic-acid bacterial growth stimulation, protection against protein haze and astringency reduction. Thus selecting a yeast strain that produces high levels of mannoproteins is important for the winemaking industry. In this work, we observed increased levels of mannoproteins in S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids, compared to the S. cerevisiae strain, in wine fermentations. Furthermore, the expression of a key gene related to mannoproteins biosynthesis, PMT1, increased in the S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrid. We showed that artificially constructed S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids also increased the levels of mannoproteins. This work demonstrates that either natural or artificial S. cerevisiae × S. kudriavzevii hybrids present mannoprotein overproducing capacity under winemaking conditions, a desirable physiological feature for this industry. These results suggest that genome interaction in hybrids generates a physiological environment that enhances the release of mannoproteins. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.


Sturm M.E.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Arroyo-Lopez F.N.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Garrido-Fernandez A.,CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa | Querol A.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | And 5 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The present study uses a probabilistic model to determine the growth/no growth interfaces of the spoilage wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis CH29 as a function of ethanol (10-15%, v/v), pH (3.4-4.0) and free SO2 (0-50mg/l) using time (7, 14, 21 and 30days) as a dummy variable. The model, built with a total of 756 growth/no growth data obtained in a simile wine medium, could have application in the winery industry to determine the wine conditions needed to inhibit the growth of this species. Thereby, at 12.5% of ethanol and pH3.7 for a growth probability of 0.01, it is necessary to add 30mg/l of free SO2 to inhibit yeast growth for 7days. However, the concentration of free SO2 should be raised to 48mg/l to achieve a probability of no growth of 0.99 for 30days under the same wine conditions. Other combinations of environmental variables can also be determined using the mathematical model depending on the needs of the industry. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Perez-Torrado R.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Llopis S.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Jespersen L.,Copenhagen University | Fernandez-Espinar T.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Querol A.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

Saccharomyces cerevisiae is generally considered to be a safe organism and is essential to produce many different kinds of foods as well as being widely used as a dietary supplement. However, several isolates, which are genetically related to brewing and baking yeasts, have shown virulent traits, being able to produce human infections in immunodeficient patients. Previously it has been shown that the administration of S. cerevisiae clinical isolates can lead to systemic infections, reaching several organs in murine systems. In this work, we studied S. cerevisiae clinical isolates in an in vitro intestinal epithelial barrier model, comparing their behaviour with that of several strains of the related pathogens Candida glabrata and Candida albicans. The results showed that, in contrast to C. glabrata and C. albicans, S. cerevisiae was not able to cross the intestinal barrier. We concluded that S. cerevisiae can only perform opportunistic or passive crossings when epithelial barrier integrity is previously compromised. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


Combina M.,Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria | Combina M.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Perez-Torrado R.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | Tronchoni J.,Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2012

The species Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a predominant role in the wine making process. However, other species have been associated with must fermentation, such as Saccharomyces uvarum (Saccharomyces bayanus var. uvarum) or Saccharomyces paradoxus. Recently, yeast hybrids of different Saccharomyces species have also been reported as responsible for wine production. Yeast hybrids between the species S. cerevisiae×. S. kudriavzevii isolated in wine fermentations show enhanced performance in low temperature enological conditions and increased production of interesting aroma compounds. In this work, we have studied the transcriptomic response in enological conditions of a S. cerevisiae×. S. kudriavzevii hybrid strain and compared it with the reference species of S. cerevisiae and S. kudriavzevii. The results show that the hybrid strain presents an up-regulation of genes belonging to functional group translation and amino-acid metabolism. Moreover, key genes related to cold stress and production of glycerol and aroma compounds were also up-regulated. While some genes inherited regulation patterns from one of the parents, most of the up-regulated genes presented a new gene expression pattern, probably generated during the hybridization and adaptation process. © 2012 Elsevier B.V..


PubMed | University of Valencia, Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos and Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria
Type: | Journal: International journal of food microbiology | Year: 2015

Saccharomyces cerevisiae plays a main role in the winemaking process, although other species, like Saccharomyces uvarum or Saccharomyces paradoxus, have been associated with must fermentations. It has been reported in recent years, that yeast hybrids of different Saccharomyces species might be responsible for wine productions. Although S. cerevisiaeSaccharomyces kudriavzevii hybrids have been well studied, very little attention has been paid to S. cerevisiaeS. uvarum hybrids. In this work we characterized the genomic composition of S6U, a widely used commercial S. cerevisiaeS. uvarum yeast hybrid isolated in wine fermentations containing one copy of the genome of each parental species, which suggests a relatively recent hybridization event. We also studied its performance under diverse enological conditions. The results show enhanced performance under low temperature enological conditions, increased glycerol production, lower acetic acid production and increased production of interesting aroma compounds. We also examined the transcriptomic response of the S6U hybrid strain compared with the reference species under enological conditions. The results show that although the hybrid strain transcriptome is more similar to S. uvarum than to S. cerevisiae, it presents specifically regulated genes involved in stress response, lipids and amino acid metabolism. The enological performance and aroma profile of this S. cerevisiaeS. uvarum hybrid makes it a good candidate for participating in winemaking, especially at low temperatures.


PubMed | University of British Columbia, Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos and University of Edinburgh
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Gut microbes | Year: 2014

The intestinal microbiota are pivotal in determining the developmental, metabolic and immunological status of the mammalian host. However, the intestinal tract may also accommodate pathogenic organisms, including helminth parasites which are highly prevalent in most tropical countries. Both microbes and helminths must evade or manipulate the host immune system to reside in the intestinal environment, yet whether they influence each others persistence in the host remains unknown. We now show that abundance of Lactobacillus bacteria correlates positively with infection with the mouse intestinal nematode parasite, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, as well as with heightened regulatory T cell (Treg) and Th17 responses. Moreover, H. polygyrus raises Lactobacillus species abundance in the duodenum of C57BL/6 mice, which are highly susceptible to H. polygyrus infection, but not in BALB/c mice, which are relatively resistant. Sequencing of samples at the bacterial gyrB locus identified the principal Lactobacillus species as L. taiwanensis, a previously characterized rodent commensal. Experimental administration of L. taiwanensis to BALB/c mice elevates regulatory T cell frequencies and results in greater helminth establishment, demonstrating a causal relationship in which commensal bacteria promote infection with an intestinal parasite and implicating a bacterially-induced expansion of Tregs as a mechanism of greater helminth susceptibility. The discovery of this tripartite interaction between host, bacteria and parasite has important implications for both antibiotic and anthelmintic use in endemic human populations.


PubMed | National University of Rio Cuarto, Institute Agroquimica Y Tecnologia Of Los Alimentos, Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia Agropecuaria and CSIC - Instituto de la Grasa
Type: | Journal: International journal of food microbiology | Year: 2013

The present study uses a probabilistic model to determine the growth/no growth interfaces of the spoilage wine yeast Dekkera bruxellensis CH29 as a function of ethanol (10-15%, v/v), pH (3.4-4.0) and free SO2 (0-50 mg/l) using time (7, 14, 21 and 30 days) as a dummy variable. The model, built with a total of 756 growth/no growth data obtained in a simile wine medium, could have application in the winery industry to determine the wine conditions needed to inhibit the growth of this species. Thereby, at 12.5% of ethanol and pH 3.7 for a growth probability of 0.01, it is necessary to add 30 mg/l of free SO2 to inhibit yeast growth for 7 days. However, the concentration of free SO2 should be raised to 48 mg/l to achieve a probability of no growth of 0.99 for 30 days under the same wine conditions. Other combinations of environmental variables can also be determined using the mathematical model depending on the needs of the industry.

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