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Murviel-lès-Montpellier, France

Bouchaib F.,Blida University | Jouve A.,Institute Agronomique Mediterraneen Of Montpellier
Cahiers Agricultures | Year: 2010

The agricultural reform adopted in Algeria in 1987 dictated the division of the Socialist Agricultural Domains and the creation of Collective and Individual Farms (EAC and EAI), the State keeping land ownership. In spite of the rules imposed by this reform, the obligation of the collective mode of production for the EAC and the banning of tenant farming, the informal division of the farms and farming by tenants have spread very quickly. The qualitative investigation carried out on a sample of 48 farmers in some EAC in the irrigated perimeter of Western Mitidja showed that the failure of the collective production form can be explained by the difficulties encountered by the beneficiaries because of the sudden change from the socialist system to a form of autonomous collective management for which preparation would have been required. Thereafter, the evolution towards an informal division of farms and the development of farming by tenants, both being illegal, resulted in behavioural diversity among the beneficiaries (ten types of behaviours). Source

Bradai L.,University of Ouargla | Neffar S.,University of Tebessa | Amrani K.,Institute Agronomique Mediterraneen Of Montpellier | Bissati S.,University of Ouargla | Chenchouni H.,University of Tebessa
Journal of Ethnopharmacology | Year: 2015

Ethnopharmacrological relevance Desert truffles are edible hypogeous fungi, highly appreciated by the inhabitants of hot-desert settlements. Native Saharan people use truffles for food, promoting tourism, increasing fertility, and treatment of eye diseases and fatigue. Aim of the study This study consists of a cross-sectional survey focusing on the knowledge, use and ethnomycological practices of desert truffles among the native people of the Algerian Northern Sahara. Materials and methods The study was conducted through direct interviews with 60 truffle-hunters in the regions of Ouargla and Ghardaia. Results Three species were harvested and consumed by the surveyed subjects: Terfezia claveryi was the most appreciated and most expensive species, followed by Terfezia areanaria moderately preferred, then Tirmania nivea the least appreciated and least expensive. Among the 60 interviewees, 90% rely on the abundance of symbiotic plants (Helianthemum lippii) to harvest truffles, 65% begin harvesting from mid-February to March, after rains of the autumn (38%) and winter (36%), particularly in the Wadi beds (37%) and Daya landscapes (32%). Interviewees harvested truffles mainly for home consumption; however 26.7% sell any harvest surplus, and of those only 15% generate significant revenue from this source, and 73% considered the sale of desert truffles to have low financial value. Desert truffles are used in traditional medicine, especially against eye infections (22%), weakness (19%) and to promote male fertility (19%). In the case of desert truffles for consumption, the surveyed population preferred to prepare the truffles with couscous and meat, or in porridge. Respondents used price as the main criterion for deciding whether to purchase desert truffles. Conclusions The surveyed trufflers use the knowledge passed from one generation to the next to help ensure a good harvest of truffles during each foray into the desert. Our findings highlight the various uses of truffles in the Sahara Desert, and how these relate to the lifestyle of local people. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Snoeck D.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Chapuset T.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Garcia Garcia J.,Instituto Murciano Of Investigacin Y Desarrollo Agrario Y Alimentario | Sfeir N.,Institute Agronomique Mediterraneen Of Montpellier | Palu S.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

Natural rubber demand was 11 million tons in 2014 and is expected to reach 16 million tons by 2025 according to the International Rubber Study Group (IRSG). The expected limitation of natural rubber from Hevea induced an interest for the development of alternative sources of natural rubber. Guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray L.), being native to the Mexican Chihuahua desert, is a perennial crop of semi-arid area, with the potential of growing in the Mediterranean area. To assess the potential of guayule cultivation, CIRAD (France) and Wageningen University (The Netherlands) have conducted some on-farm guayule trials in southern Europe in partnership within the European based production and exploitation of alternative rubber and latex sources project (EU-PEARLS). Promising agronomic results have led to assess the profitability of a guayule commodity chain in the Mediterranean Europe area. Data on farming practices, biorefinery, costs of inputs were collected from the trials conducted in Spain and France, and from farmers and farmers' organizations in both countries. At farm level, different cost scenarios were tested, with guayule biomass being the sole output, with annual or biennial harvests. Our results showed that, based on a nine-year field cultivation, the farmer's breakeven point can be reached at a sale price of €147ton-1 of dry biomass (at 12tonha-1). At factory level, the biorefiner needs to sell water-extracted rubber as latex. By adding solvent extraction, it is possible to extract the remaining percentage of total rubber and the resin. In such case, the biorefiner's profits rises to €691ton-1 of extracted rubber, making guayule cultivation profitable. Bagasse sale for electricity production or wood pellets is a bonus to be considered too. Our results showed that, in these conditions, a guayule value chain in Europe could be profitable.We extrapolated the results from our experiments to other Mediterranean countrie's culture conditions. Our results showed that guayule cultivation would probably be more beneficial in the Southern Mediterranean countries, including Spain, than in the Northern countries (South of France). Introduction of guayule production in the Mediterranean region could contribute to improved sustainability in rural development projects, allow a new economic development of the regions, and contribute to provide a new sustainable crop alternative against the impacts of climate change such as longer and more severe drought stress. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Padilla M.,Institute Agronomique Mediterraneen Of Montpellier
Pratiques en Nutrition | Year: 2013

Is nutrition transition inevitable? Nutrition transition refers to the move from a diet based on cereals to a diet based on animal products. A significant increase in the consumption of animal products can be observed across the world, linked to the improvement in living standards. As a result of the health crises of the 1980s and 1990s, demand for animal products in Europe and in France fell significantly and was further impacted by consumers' new expectations. High global demand leads to pressure on resources. In the future, the choice of agricultural and food policies, global economic conditions and environmental regulations will determine the evolution in the demand for animal products. © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Dominguez P.,University of Kent | Bourbouze A.,Institute Agronomique Mediterraneen Of Montpellier | Demay S.,Agro ParisTech | Genin D.,CNRS Population, Environment, and Development Laboratory | Kosoy A.N.,McGill University
Environmental Values | Year: 2012

This study examines the multiple dimensions of the agdal system, a traditional Berber form of environmental management that regulates access to communal natural resources so as to allow the regeneration of natural resources. In fact, this ingenious system of agro-pastoral land rotation is ultimately beneficial for the conservation of the bio-physical environment, the performance of the present-day local economy and the maintenance of prevailing social cohesion and cultural coherence. Hence, agdals constitute a key element for the reinforcement of the sustainability of existing agro-pastoral societies and ecosystems, but need to be better understood in order to explore necessary adaptations in the changing world of today. © 2012 The White Horse Press. Source

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