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Masi F.,IRIDRA Srl | El Hamouri B.,Institute Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II IAV | Abdel Shafi H.,National Research Center of Egypt | Baban A.,TUBITAK - Marmara Research Center | Regelsberger M.,AEE - Institute of Sustainable Technologies
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Concerns about water shortage and pollution have received increased attention over the past few years, especially in developing countries with warm climate. In order to help local water management in these countries, the Euro-Mediterranean Regional Programme (MEDA) has financed the Zer0-m project (www.zer0-m.org). As a part of this project, several constructed wetland (CW) pilot systems with different pre-treatments have been implemented in four Technological Demonstration Centres in Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Turkey. The aim of this research was to establish appropriate designs for treatment of segregated domestic black (BW) and grey water (GW). We tested several different multistage CW configurations, consisting of horizontal and vertical subsurface flow CW for secondary treatment and free water systems as tertiary stage. CW removal efficiencies of TSS, COD, BOD5, N-NH4 +, N-NO3, Ntot, total coliforms (TC) were evaluated for each of the implemented systems. The results from this study demonstrate the potential of CWs as a suitable technology for treating segregated domestic wastewater. A very efficient COD reduction (up to 98%) and nitrification (92-99%) was achieved for BW and GW in all systems. CW effluent concentrations were below 15 mg/L for BOD5, 1 mg/L for N-NO3 and 0.5 mg/L for N-NH4 + together with acceptable TC counts. Based on these results, we suggest adopting the design parameters used in this study for the treatment of segregated wastewater in the Mediterranean area. © IWA Publishing 2010. Source

Benouniche M.,Institute Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II IAV | Benouniche M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development | Zwarteveen M.,Wageningen University | Kuper M.,Institute Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II IAV | Kuper M.,CIRAD - Agricultural Research for Development
Irrigation and Drainage | Year: 2014

In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of bricolage and show that it is a useful term to explain irrigation innovation processes. Through bricolage farmers adapt and modify the system to their needs, but also enter a process of gradual learning about what drip irrigation is and what it can achieve. Bricolage has led to the multiplication and diversification of drip systems, with different categories of users co-designing the nature and direction of change it provokes. Through bricolage, local actors effectively share responsibilities of the design process with engineers. The paper concludes that the fact that drip irrigation lends itself to bricolage helps explain its success as an innovation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source

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