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Clavijo G.,Public University of Navarra | Clavijo G.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Williams T.,Institute Ecologia AC | Munoz D.,Public University of Navarra | And 4 more authors.
Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

An insect nucleopolyhedrovirus naturally survives as a mixture of at least nine genotypes. Infection by multiple genotypes results in the production of virus occlusion bodies (OBs) with greater pathogenicity than those of any genotype alone. We tested the hypothesis that each OB contains a genotypically diverse population of virions. Few insects died following inoculation with an experimental two-genotype mixture at a dose of one OB per insect, but a high proportion of multiple infections were observed (50%), which differed significantly from the frequencies predicted by a non-associated transmission model in which genotypes are segregated into distinct OBs. By contrast, insects that consumed multiple OBs experienced higher mortality and infection frequencies did not differ significantly from those of the non-associated model. Inoculation with genotypically complex wild-type OBs indicated that genotypes tend to be trans-mitted in association, rather than as independent entities, irrespective of dose. To examine the hypothesis that virions may themselves be genotypically heterogeneous, cell culture plaques derived from individual virions were analysed to reveal that one-third of virions was of mixed genotype, irrespective of the genotypic composition of the OBs. We conclude that co-occlusion of genotypically distinct virions in each OB is an adaptive mechanism that favours the maintenance of virus diversity during insect-to-insect transmission. © 2009 The Royal Society.


Simon O.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Williams T.,Institute Ecologia AC | Lopez-Ferber M.,Ecole des Mines d'Ales | Caballero P.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Caballero P.,Public University of Navarra
Journal of Invertebrate Pathology | Year: 2012

A Nicaraguan population of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus, SfMNPV-NIC, includes fast-killing genotypes with deletions in the egt region. Four bacmid based recombinants were constructed to determine the role of egt in this phenotype. SfdelF bacmid encompassed the deletion found in the NIC-F genotype. Sfdel3AP2 bacmid was constructed using the deletion reported in SfMNPV-3AP2 (Missouri, fast-killing isolate), whereas Sfdelegt and Sfdel27 bacmids lacked the single genes egt and the adjacent sf27 gene, respectively. No significant differences were observed in occlusion body (OB) concentration-mortality metrics (LC50 values) among the viruses. Larvae infected by NIC-B (a natural genotype with the largest genome), Sfbac (a bacmid with NIC-B genome) and Sfdel27 survived significantly longer than insects infected by NIC-F, SfdelF, SfMNPV-3AP2, Sfdel3AP2 or Sfdelegt. Fast-killing viruses produced ~6-13-fold fewer OBs/larva compared to other viruses tested. We conclude that deletion/disruption of egt is responsible for the fast-killing phenotypes of naturally-occurring genotypes in SfMNPV populations from Missouri and Nicaragua. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Garrido V.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Collantes M.,University of Navarra | Barberan M.,University of Zaragoza | Penuelas I.,University of Navarra | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

A mouse model was developed for in vivo monitoring of infection and the effect of antimicrobial treatment against Staphylococcus aureus biofilms, using the [18F]fluoro-deoxyglucose-MicroPET ([18F]FDG-MicroPET) image technique. In the model, sealed Vialon catheters were briefly precolonized with S. aureus strains ATCC 15981 or V329, which differ in cytotoxic properties and biofilm matrix composition. After subcutaneous implantation of catheters in mice, the S. aureus strain differences found in bacterial counts and the inflammatory reaction triggered were detected by the regular bacteriological and histological procedures and also by [18F]FDG-MicroPET image signal intensity determinations in the infection area and regional lymph node. Moreover, [18F]FDG-MicroPET imaging allowed the monitoring of the rifampin treatment effect, identifying the periods of controlled infection and those of reactivated infection due to the appearance of bacteria naturally resistant to rifampin. Overall, the mouse model developed may be useful for noninvasive in vivo determinations in studies on S. aureus biofilm infections and assessment of new therapeutic approaches. © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.


Barrera G.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Simon O.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Villamizar L.,Corporacion Colombiana de Investigacion Agropecuaria CORPOICA | Williams T.,Institute Ecologia AC | And 2 more authors.
Biological Control | Year: 2011

Thirty-eight isolates of Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV), collected from infected larvae on pastures, maize, and sorghum plants in three different geographical regions of Colombia, were subjected to molecular characterization and were compared with a previously characterized Nicaraguan isolate (SfNIC). Restriction endonuclease analysis (REN) using six different enzymes showed two different patterns among Colombian isolates, one profile was particularly frequent (92%) and was named SfCOL. The physical map of SfCOL was constructed and the genome was estimated to be 133.9. kb, with few differences in terms of number and position of restriction sites between the genomes of SfNIC and SfCOL. The PstI-K and PstI-M fragments were characteristic of SfCOL. These fragments were sequenced to reveal the presence of seven complete and two partial ORFs. This region was collinear with SfMNPV sf20-sf27. However, two ORFs (4 and 5) had no homologies with SfMNPV ORFs, but were homologous with Spodoptera exigua MNPV (se21 and se22/. se23) and Spodoptera litura NPV (splt20 and splt21). Biological characterization was performed against two different colonies of S. frugiperda, one originating from Colombia and one from Mexico. Occlusion bodies (OBs) of the SfCOL isolate were as potent (in terms of concentration-mortality metrics) as SfNIC OBs towards the Mexican insect colony. However, SfCOL OBs were 12 times more potent for the Colombian colony than SfNIC OBs and three times more potent for the Colombian colony than for the Mexican colony. SfCOL and SfNIC showed a slower speed of kill (by ~50. h) in insects from the Colombian colony compared to the Mexican colony, which was correlated with a higher production of OBs/larvae. SfCOL is a new strain of SfMNPV that presents pathogenic characteristics that favor its development as the basis for a biopesticide product in Colombia. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.


Palma L.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Munoz D.,Public University of Navarra | Berry C.,University of Cardiff | Murillo J.,Public University of Navarra | And 2 more authors.
Toxins | Year: 2014

Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram positive, spore-forming bacterium that synthesizes parasporal crystalline inclusions containing Cry and Cyt proteins, some of which are toxic against a wide range of insect orders, nematodes and human-cancer cells. These toxins have been successfully used as bioinsecticides against caterpillars, beetles, and flies, including mosquitoes and blackflies. Bt also synthesizes insecticidal proteins during the vegetative growth phase, which are subsequently secreted into the growth medium. These proteins are commonly known as vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) and hold insecticidal activity against lepidopteran, coleopteran and some homopteran pests. A less well characterized secretory protein with no amino acid similarity to Vip proteins has shown insecticidal activity against coleopteran pests and is termed Sip (secreted insecticidal protein). Bin-like and ETX_MTX2-family proteins (Pfam PF03318), which share amino acid similarities with mosquitocidal binary (Bin) and Mtx2 toxins, respectively, from Lysinibacillus sphaericus, are also produced by some Bt strains. In addition, vast numbers of Bt isolates naturally present in the soil and the phylloplane also synthesize crystal proteins whose biological activity is still unknown. In this review, we provide an updated overview of the known active Bt toxins to date and discuss their activities. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


A recombinant virus lacking the sf32 gene (Sf32null), unique to the Spodoptera frugiperda multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SfMNPV), was generated by homologous recombination from a bacmid comprising the complete viral genome (Sfbac). Transcriptional analysis revealed that sf32 is an early gene. Occlusion bodies (OBs) of Sf32null contained 62% more genomic DNA than viruses containing the sf32 gene, Sfbac and Sf32null-repair, although Sf32null DNA was three-fold less infective when injected in vivo. Sf32null OBs were 18% larger in diameter and contained 17% more nucleocapsids within ODVs than those of Sfbac. No significant differences were detected in OB pathogenicity (50% lethal concentration), speed-of-kill or budded virus production in vivo. In contrast, the production of OBs/larva was reduced by 39% in insects infected by Sf32null compared to those infected by Sfbac. The SF32 predicted protein sequence showed homology (25% identity, 44% similarity) to two adhesion proteins from Streptococcus pyogenes and a single N-mirystoylation site was predicted. We conclude that SF32 is a non-essential protein that could be involved in nucleocapsid organization during ODV assembly and occlusion, resulting in increased numbers of nucleocapsids within ODVs.


Dinjaski N.,CSIC - Biological Research Center | Suri S.,Georgia Institute of Technology | Valle J.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Lehman S.M.,Georgia Institute of Technology | And 3 more authors.
Acta Biomaterialia | Year: 2014

Biomaterial-associated infection is one of the most common complications related to the implantation of any biomedical device. Several in vivo imaging platforms have emerged as powerful diagnostic tools to longitudinally monitor biomaterial-associated infections in small animal models. In this study, we directly compared two imaging approaches: bacteria engineered to produce luciferase to generate bioluminescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS) imaging of the inflammatory response associated with the infected implant. We performed longitudinal imaging of bioluminescence associated with bacteria strains expressing plasmid-integrated luciferase driven by different promoters or a strain with the luciferase gene integrated into the chromosome. These luminescent strains provided an adequate signal for acute (0-4 days) monitoring of the infection, but the bioluminescence signal decreased over time and leveled off at 7 days post-implantation. This loss in the bioluminescence signal was attributed to changes in the metabolic activity of the bacteria. In contrast, near-infrared fluorescence imaging of ROS associated with inflammation to the implant provided sensitive and dose-dependent signals of biomaterial-associated bacteria. ROS imaging exhibited higher sensitivity than the bioluminescence imaging and was independent of the bacteria strain. Near-infrared fluorescence imaging of inflammatory responses represents a powerful alternative to bioluminescence imaging for monitoring biomaterial-associated bacterial infections. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Acta Materialia Inc.


Vico J.P.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | Rol I.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Garrido V.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | San Roman B.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

A herd-based survey of Salmonella in pigs was carried in a major pig producing region of Spain. Mesenteric lymph nodes were collected from the carcasses of 25 pigs from each of 80 herds at time of slaughter. Salmonella spp. were isolated from 31% of animals and 94% of herds. Within-herd prevalence ranged from 4 to 88%, with the prevalence in most herds being greater than 10%. A large diversity of Salmonella serotypes was found, with Typhimurium, 4,[5],12:i:2, and Rissen being the most prevalent. Two or more serotypes coexisted in 73% of the herds. Salmonella Typhimurium was present in 68% of the herds. Most (82%) of the Salmonella isolates belonged to serogroups targeted by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests for pig salmonellosis. Resistance to at least one antimicrobial agent was detected in 73% of the strains, and one or more resistant strains were recovered from pigs in 93% of the herds. Antimicrobial agent resistance (AR) was more frequent among the most prevalent than it was among the rarer serotypes. Twenty-five multi-AR patterns were found. Resistance to three or more families of antimicrobial agents was found in 75% of AR strains. The finding that many of the herds yielded isolates of several multi-AR patterns indicates that Salmonella infections were acquired from multiple sources. High prevalence of Salmonella in herds was associated with lack of rodent control programs, herds from farms with only finishing pigs, herds managed by more than one full-time worker, herds for which the source of drinking water was not a city supply, and relatively long fattening times. © International Association for Food Protection.


Theze J.,CNRS Research Institute of Insect Biology | Herniou E.A.,CNRS Research Institute of Insect Biology | Cabodevilla O.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | Palma L.,Institute Agrobiotecnologia | And 3 more authors.
Journal of General Virology | Year: 2014

Key virus traits such as virulence and transmission strategies rely on genetic variation that results in functional changes in the interactions between hosts and viruses. Here, comparative genomic analyses of seven isolates of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) with differing phenotypes were employed to pinpoint candidate genes that may be involved in host– virus interactions. These isolates obtained after vertical or horizontal transmission of infection in insects differed in virulence. Apart from one genome containing a piggyBac transposon, all European SeMNPV isolates had a similar genome size and content. Complete genome analyses of single nucleotide polymorphisms and insertions/deletions identified mutations in 48 ORFs that could result in functional changes. Among these, 13 ORFs could be correlated with particular phenotypic characteristics of SeMNPV isolates. Mutations were found in all gene functional classes and most of the changes we highlighted could potentially be associated with differences in transmission. The regulation of DNA replication (helicase, lef-7) and transcription (lef-9, p47) might be important for the establishment of sublethal infection prior to and following vertical transmission. Virus–host cell interactions also appear instrumental in the modulation of viral transmission as significant mutations were detected in virion proteins involved in primary (AC150) or secondary infections (ME35) and in apoptosis inhibition (IAP2, AC134). Baculovirus populations naturally harbour high genomic variation located in genes involved at different levels of the complex interactions between virus and host during the course of an infection. The comparative analyses performed here suggest that the differences in baculovirus virulence and transmission phenotypes involve multiple molecular pathways. © 2014 The Authors.


De Miguel M.J.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | Marin C.M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | Munoz P.M.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | Dieste L.,CSIC - Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2011

Bacteriological diagnosis of brucellosis is performed by culturing animal samples directly on both Farrell medium (FM) and modified Thayer-Martin medium (mTM). However, despite inhibiting most contaminating microorganisms, FM also inhibits the growth of Brucella ovis and some B. melitensis and B. abortus strains. In contrast, mTM is adequate for growth of all Brucella species but only partially inhibitory for contaminants. Moreover, the performance of both culture media for isolating B. suis has never been established properly. We first determined the performance of both media for B. suis isolation, proving that FM significantly inhibits B. suis growth. We also determined the susceptibility of B. suis to the antibiotics contained in both selective media, proving that nalidixic acid and bacitracin are highly inhibitory, thus explaining the reduced performance of FM for B. suis isolation. Based on these results, a new selective medium (CITA) containing vancomycin, colistin, nystatin, nitrofurantoin, and amphotericin B was tested for isolation of the main Brucella species, including B. suis. CITA's performance was evaluated using reference contaminant strains but also field samples taken from brucella-infected animals or animals suspected of infection. CITA inhibited most contaminant microorganisms but allowed the growth of all Brucella species, to levels similar to those for both the control medium without antibiotics and mTM. Moreover, CITA medium was more sensitive than both mTM and FM for isolating all Brucella species from field samples. Altogether, these results demonstrate the adequate performance of CITA medium for the primary isolation of the main Brucella species, including B. suis. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology.

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