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Pollock N.R.,Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center | Macovei L.,Forsyth Institute | Kanunfre K.,Forsyth Institute | Kanunfre K.,University of Sao Paulo | And 11 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2013

The development of an accurate antigen detection assay for the diagnosis of active tuberculosis (TB) would represent a major clinical advance. Here, we demonstrate that the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Rv1681 protein is a biomarker for active TB with potential diagnostic utility. We initially identified, by mass spectroscopy, peptides from the Rv1681 protein in urine specimens from 4 patients with untreated active TB. Rabbit IgG anti-recombinant Rv1681 detected Rv1681 protein in lysates and culture filtrates of M. tuberculosis and immunoprecipitated it from pooled urine specimens from two TB patients. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay formatted with these antibodies detected Rv1681 protein in unconcentrated urine specimens from 11/25 (44%) TB patients and 1/21 (4.8%) subjects in whom TB was initially clinically suspected but then ruled out by conventional methods. Rv1681 protein was not detected in urine specimens from 10 subjects with Escherichia coli-positive urine cultures, 26 subjects with confirmed non-TB tropical diseases (11 with schistosomiasis, 5 with Chagas' disease, and 10 with cutaneous leishmaniasis), and 14 healthy subjects. These results provide strong validation of Rv1681 protein as a promising biomarker for TB diagnosis. Copyright © 2013, American Society for Microbiology. Source

De Farias C.R.,University of Sao Paulo | Cardoso B.R.,University of Sao Paulo | De Oliveira G.M.B.,University of Sao Paulo | De Mello Guazzelli I.C.,University of Sao Paulo | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Endocrinological Investigation | Year: 2015

Purpose: To analyze the impact of selenium supplementation on serum antiTPO levels and thyroid echogenicity in patients with CAT, evaluating the response in subgroups with different GPx1 genotypes. Methods: CAT patients (n = 55) with positive antiTPO were randomized to selenomethionine (SeMet) 200 μg daily (n = 28) or placebo (n = 27) for 3 months. Assessments included GPx1 genotyping at baseline and serum levels of plasma selenium, erythrocyte GPx1 activity, antiTPO and thyroid echogenicity at baseline, and 3 and 6 months. Results: In the SeMet group, the increase in plasma levels of selenium and erythrocyte GPx1 activity was similar among patients with different GPx1 genotypes. In the overall cohort, patients randomized to SeMet showed a 5 % decrease in antiTPO levels at 3 months (p = non-significant) and 20 % at 6 months (p < 0.001 versus 3 months). In contrast, patients in the placebo group did not show significant changes in antiTPO levels at any time point. Subgroup analysis showed that patients with different GPx1 genotypes presented comparable responses in antiTPO levels and echogenicity index to SeMet. Conclusions: Selenium supplementation decreased serum antiTPO levels in CAT patients, with similar response among patients with different GPx1 genotypes. © 2015 Italian Society of Endocrinology (SIE). Source

Cayabyab M.J.,The Forsyth Institute | Cayabyab M.J.,Harvard University | Qin L.,Novartis | Kashino S.S.,Adolpho Lutz Institute | And 2 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2013

Accruing data strongly support the possible role of CD8+ T cells in immunity against tuberculosis (TB). Multivalent vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) that incorporate CD8+ T cell antigens with those that elicit CD4+ T cells are therefore highly desirable. To screen for potential CD8+ T cell antigens that are produced by Mtb during infection, we isolated pathogen-derived peptides that bound to MHC Class I molecules expressed in adherent splenocytes obtained from Mtb-infected mice. Mass spectroscopy analysis revealed the following four nonamer peptides that had 100% homology with Mtb proteins: DGYVGAPAH (MT_0401), TTMPLFAD (MT_1164), RSGAATPVR (MT_2160.1) and LAAVVGVVL (MT_0078). The gene MT_0401 codes the protein 5'-phosphoribosylglycinamide transformylase 2 and the other three genes code for hypothetical proteins with unknown function. The NCBI/Blast analysis showed that among the four peptides DGYVGAPAH had the highest maximum alignment score and lowest E value (number of alignments expected by chance). Therefore, we assessed whether MT_0401 expressed in two genetic vaccine formulations was capable of stimulating CD8+ T cell response that is specific to DGYVGAPAH peptide. When mice were immunized with a recombinant plasmid DNA and an E1/E3-deleted Adenovirus 5 expressing MT0401 protein, using both homologous and heterologous prime-boost protocols, they developed strong DGYVGAPAH-specific CD8+ T cell response as well as antibody and CD4+ specific T cell response to the full length MT0401 protein. Equally important was the observation that mice infected with Mtb developed DGYVGAPAH-specific CD8+ T cell responses in both spleen and lungs. These results demonstrate that Mtb antigens that are processed and presented via MHC Class I machinery can be readily identified by the described approach and may be useful candidate antigens to stimulate specific CD8+ T cell responses in vaccine development programs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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