Villanueva de Castellón, Spain
Villanueva de Castellón, Spain

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Ceinos R.M.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | Guillot R.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic | Kelsh R.N.,University of Bath | Cerda-Reverter J.M.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic | Rotllant J.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research
Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research | Year: 2015

Dorso-ventral pigment pattern differences are the most widespread pigmentary adaptations in vertebrates. In mammals, this pattern is controlled by regulating melanin chemistry in melanocytes using a protein, agouti-signalling peptide (ASIP). In fish, studies of pigment patterning have focused on stripe formation, identifying a core striping mechanism dependent upon interactions between different pigment cell types. In contrast, mechanisms driving the dorso-ventral countershading pattern have been overlooked. Here, we demonstrate that, in fact, zebrafish utilize two distinct adult pigment patterning mechanisms - an ancient dorso-ventral patterning mechanism, and a more recent striping mechanism based on cell-cell interactions; remarkably, the dorso-ventral patterning mechanism also utilizes ASIP. These two mechanisms function largely independently, with resultant patterns superimposed to give the full pattern. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Navarro S.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic | Soletto L.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic | Puchol S.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic | Rotllant J.,CSIC - Institute of Marine Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Molecular Endocrinology | Year: 2016

Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is a complex precursor that comprises several peptidic hormones, including melanocyte-stimulating hormones (MSHs), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), and β-endorphin. POMC belongs to the opioid/orphanin gene family, whose precursors include either opioid (YGGF) or the orphanin/nociceptin core sequences (FGGF). This gene family diversified during early tetraploidizations of the vertebrate genome to generate four different precursors: proenkephalin (PENK), prodynorphin (PDYN), and nociceptin/proorphanin (PNOC) as well as POMC, although both PNOC and POMC seem to have arisen due to a local duplication event. POMC underwent complex evolutionary processes, including internal tandem duplications and putative coevolutionary events. Controversial and conflicting hypotheses have emerged concerning the sequenced genomes. In this article, we summarize the different evolutionary hypotheses proposed for POMC evolution. © 2016 Society for Endocrinology Published by Bioscientifica Ltd.


PubMed | Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic, CSIC - Institute of Marine Research, University of Vigo, Vanderbilt University and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Hormones and behavior | Year: 2016

Melanocortin signaling is regulated by the binding of naturally occurring antagonists, agouti-signaling protein (ASIP) and agouti-related protein (AGRP) that compete with melanocortin peptides by binding to melanocortin receptors to regulate energy balance and growth. Using a transgenic model overexpressing ASIP, we studied the involvement of melanocortin system in the feeding behaviour, growth and stress response of zebrafish. Our data demonstrate that ASIP overexpression results in enhanced growth but not obesity. The differential growth is explained by increased food intake and feeding efficiency mediated by a differential sensitivity of the satiety system that seems to involve the cocaine- and amphetamine- related transcript (CART). Stress response was similar in both genotypes. Brain transcriptome of transgenic (ASIP) vs wild type (WT) fish was compared using microarrays. WT females and males exhibited 255 genes differentially expressed (DEG) but this difference was reduced to 31 after ASIP overexpression. Statistical analysis revealed 1122 DEG when considering only fish genotype but 1066 and 981 DEG when comparing ASIP males or females with their WT counterparts, respectively. Interaction between genotype and sex significantly affected the expression of 97 genes. Several neuronal systems involved in the control of food intake were identified which displayed a differential expression according to the genotype of the fish that unravelling the flow of melanocortinergic information through the central pathways that controls the energy balance. The information provided herein will help to elucidate new central systems involved in control of obesity and should be of invaluable use for sustaining fish production systems.


PubMed | Marine Harvest Canada, British Columbia Ministry of forests, Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic, Deakin University and Center for Aquatic Health science
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish diseases | Year: 2016

Kudoa thyrsites (Myxozoa) encysts within myocytes of a variety of fishes. While infected fish appear unharmed, parasite-derived enzymes degrade the flesh post-mortem. In regions of British Columbia (BC), Canada, up to 4-7% of fillets can be affected, thus having economic consequences and impacting the competitiveness of BCs farms. K.thyrsites was monitored in two farms having high (HP) or low (LP) historical infection prevalence. At each farm, 30 fish were sampled monthly for blood and muscle during the first year followed by nine samplings during year two. Prevalence and intensity were measured by PCR and histology of muscle samples. In parallel, fillet tests were used to quantify myoliquefaction. Infections were detected by PCR after 355 and 509 degree days at LP and HP farms, respectively. Prevalence reached 100% at the HP farm by 2265degree days and declined during the second year, whereas it plateaued near 50% at the LP farm. Infection intensities decreased after 1year at both farms. Blood was PCR-positive at both farms between 778 and 1113degree days and again after 2000degree days. This is the first monitoring project in a production environment and compares data between farms with different prevalence.


Ghomari M.S.,University of Mostaganem | Selselet G.S.,University of Mostaganem | Hontoria F.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic | Amat F.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic
Crustaceana | Year: 2011

This paper summarizes the results of a study that comprised a survey along with a morphological characterization of Artemia populations from seven sebkhas, one chott, and an inland salt lake in Algeria. Sebkhas and chotts are two different types of closed inland basins. Morphological characters together with a multivariate discriminant analysis applied to morphometric data obtained from adult specimens cultured under standard conditions, were used to differentiate the species and strains. The bisexual species A. salina (L., 1758) is present in seven of these saltmarshes, but frequently cooccurs with diploid and tetraploid parthenogenetic strains. The biodiversity pattern of the populations of Artemia in Algeria appears to be similar to that found in the rest of the western Mediterranean region. © 2011 BRILL.


Constenla M.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Padros F.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Palenzuela O.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic
Journal of Fish Diseases | Year: 2014

A new amoeba species pathogenic for Senegalese sole is described based on ultrastructural analysis and SSU rDNA phylogenetic inference. The parasite presents round to ovoid trophozoites (<5 μm) with a high degree of intracellular simplification. No mitochondria were observed, but mitosome-like organelles were present. No cysts could be detected. Phylogenetic analysis confirmed the Senegalese sole parasite as an amitochondriate Archamoeba related to Endolimax nana and Iodamoeba spp., and we tentatively describe it as a new species in the genus Endolimax, Endolimax piscium. However, the genetic distance with E. nana is quite large, with only 60% pairwise identity between both SSU rDNA genotypes. Although the overall topology of the Archamoebae cladograms containing E. piscium was consistent, the support for the branching of Endolimax spp. relative to its closest neighbours was variable, being higher with distance or parsimony-based inference methods than with ML or Bayesian trees. The use of stringent alignment sampling masks also caused instability and reduced support for some branches, including the monophyly of Endolimax spp. in the most conservative data sets. The characterization of other Archamoebae parasitizing fish could help to clarify the status of E. piscium and to interpret the large genetic distance observed between Endolimax species. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Rodrigues C.M.,University of Porto | Bio A.,University of Porto | Amat F.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic | Vieira N.,University of Porto
Saline Systems | Year: 2011

Solar salinas are man-made systems exploited for the extraction of salt, by solar and wind evaporation of seawater. Salt production achieved by traditional methods is associated with landscapes and environmental and patrimonial values generated throughout history. Since the mid-twentieth century, this activity has been facing a marked decline in Portugal, with most salinas either abandoned or subjected to destruction, making it necessary to find a strategy to reverse this trend.It is, however, possible to generate revenue from salinas at several levels, not merely in terms of good quality salt production, but also by obtaining other products that can be commercialized, or by exploring their potential for tourism, and as research facilities, among others. Furthermore, with an adequate management, biodiversity can be restored to abandoned salinas, which constitute important feeding and breeding grounds for resident and migratory aquatic birds, many of which are protected by European Community Directives.The aims of this manuscript are to present a brief overview on the current state of sea salt exploitation in Portugal and to stress the importance of recovering these salinas for the conservation of this particular environment, for the regional economy, the scientific community and the general public. The Aveiro salina complex is presented in detail, to exemplify salina structure and functioning, as well as current problems and potential solutions for artisanal salinas. © 2011 Rodrigues et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Pinto P.M.,University of Porto | Hontoria F.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic | Vieira N.,University of Porto | Bio A.,University of Porto
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2014

There is widespread interest in the conservation of native Artemia biodiversity. In Portugal, only two known populations of native Artemia remain: one in the Rio Maior salina, the other in the Aveiro salina complex, both of the diploid Artemia parthenogenetica species. All other Portuguese hypersaline environments where Artemia can be found have been invaded by Artemia franciscana, which has eradicated the native strains. Invasiveness and resilience of, respectively, exotic and indigenous species are thought to depend on strain-specific traits and adaptation to local conditions. This work evaluates the reproductive performance of the two Portuguese native strains and the invasive species exposed to different salinities, temperatures, photoperiods and food supplies. Reproduction periods, quantity and quality of offspring varied significantly, depending on both the Artemia strain and environmental conditions. A.parthenogenetica from Rio Maior reproduced better than A.franciscana at high salinity (150) and low food supply, which may reflect an adaptation to its biotope that aids its resistance to invasion. But A.parthenogenetica form Aveiro performed much worse than its invasive competitor, under most of the conditions tested. It is unlikely that A.franciscana has not been introduced in this salina by chance alone. Other biological traits of the local A.parthenogenetica or adaptation to unstudied local factors (e.g. pollution) are probably responsible for this strain's survival. Further knowledge on specific local conditions and trait-specific tolerances to biotic and abiotic conditions are needed to understand (non-)invasion patterns and preserve the remaining native populations. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Pinto P.M.,University of Porto | Bio A.,University of Porto | Hontoria F.,Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic | Almeida V.,University of Porto | Vieira N.,University of Porto
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology | Year: 2013

There are currently only two places in Portugal were native Artemia parthenogenetica can still be found. All other known populations have been eradicated by the invasive species Artemia franciscana, which has caused great losses of Artemia biodiversity in the Mediterranean region. The diploid strains found at the Portuguese salines are therefore of high conservation value. This study aims to assess the survival of these native A. parthenogenetica strains and of A. franciscana under a variety of environmental conditions. The effects of water temperature and salinity, of photoperiod and food supply (shortage) were studied in an experimental setup.The Portuguese parthenogenetic Artemia populations showed great variability in their physiological response to different abiotic conditions, suggesting possible local adaptations in response to different selective pressures experienced. For most of the conditions studied A. franciscana outcompeted the Artemia strain from Aveiro, whereas the strain from Rio Maior was more resistant than the A. franciscana under conditions that were similar to its local habitat. Strain-specific resistance to chemical conditions, related to pollution, are appointed as a potential cause why A. franciscana did not successfully invade Aveiro saline. The saline of Rio Maior has possibly not yet been invaded due to the fitness of its local Artemia strain in combination with its inland location. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Autonomous University of Barcelona and Institute Acuicultura Of Torre Of La Sal Iats Csic
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of fish diseases | Year: 2016

Systemic amoebiasis of sole is caused by Endolimax piscium, a cryptic parasitic archamoeba whose epidemiology and pathogeny are yet unknown. To establish reliable detection methods for this parasite, a battery of molecular diagnostic tools (ISH, PCR and qPCR) were developed and evaluated with a panel of clinical samples from symptomatic diseased fish and from apparently normal animals of different stocks. As there is neither enough background information on the epidemiology of the disease nor a validated reference method, comparison of tests used a composite reference method approach. The ISH technique was the most specific and sensitive in intestine samples and particularly useful as a reference confirmatory method, while the best method in muscle samples was qPCR. Application of the tests to asymptomatic fish demonstrated presence of parasites in a large proportion (>25%) of their intestines, suggesting that this is the point of entry of the amoebae and the initial stage in the development of the disease. The triggering factors that facilitate the breaching of the intestinal barrier by E.piscium, causing granulomatous lesions in other organs and systemic spreading, are not completely understood but our results point to the connective tissue as a preferential target for parasite development and migration.

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