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Lecuit T.,Institut Universitaire de France | Lenne P.-F.,Institut Universitaire de France | Munro E.,University of Chicago
Annual Review of Cell and Developmental Biology | Year: 2011

Cell shape changes underlie a large set of biological processes ranging from cell division to cell motility. Stereotyped patterns of cell shape changes also determine tissue remodeling events such as extension or invagination. In vitro and cell culture systems have been essential to understanding the fundamental physical principles of subcellular mechanics. These are now complemented by studies in developing organisms that emphasize how cell and tissue morphogenesis emerge from the interplay between force-generating machines, such as actomyosin networks, and adhesive clusters that transmit tensile forces at the cell cortex and stabilize cell-cell and cell-substrate interfaces. Both force production and transmission are self-organizing phenomena whose adaptive features are essential during tissue morphogenesis. A new era is opening that emphasizes the similarities of and allows comparisons between distant dynamic biological phenomena because they rely on core machineries that control universal features of cytomechanics. © 2011 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved. Source


Adamo C.,Chimie Paristech | Adamo C.,Institut Universitaire de France | Jacquemin D.,Institut Universitaire de France | Jacquemin D.,University of Nantes
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2013

In this tutorial review, we show how Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) has become a popular tool for computing the signatures of electronically excited states, and more specifically, the properties directly related to the optical (absorption and emission) spectra of molecules. We discuss the properties that can be obtained with widely available programs as well as how to account for the environmental effects (solvent and surfaces) and present recent applications in these fields. We next expose the transformation of the TD-DFT results into chemically intuitive parameters (colours as well as charge-transfer distances). Eventually, the non-specialised reader will find a series of advices and warnings necessary to perform her/his first TD-DFT calculations. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Source


Alix-Panabieres C.,Montpellier University Hospital Center | Alix-Panabieres C.,Institut Universitaire de France | Pantel K.,University of Hamburg
Nature Reviews Cancer | Year: 2014

During the past ten years, circulating tumour cells (CTCs) have received enormous attention as new biomarkers and the subject of basic research. Although CTCs are already used in numerous clinical trials, their clinical utility is still under investigation. Many issues regarding the detection and characterization of CTCs remain unknown. In this Opinion article, we propose a conceptual framework of CTC assays and point out current challenges of CTC research, which might structure this dynamic field of translational cancer research. © 2014 Macmillan Publishers Limited. Source


Romero N.B.,Institut Universitaire de France
Acta neuropathologica communications | Year: 2014

Nemaline myopathy (NM) is a rare congenital myopathy characterised by hypotonia, muscle weakness, and often skeletal muscle deformities with the presence of nemaline bodies (rods) in the muscle biopsy. The nebulin (NEB) gene is the most commonly mutated and is thought to account for approximately 50% of genetically diagnosed cases of NM. We undertook a detailed muscle morphological analysis of 14 NEB-mutated NM patients with different clinical forms to define muscle pathological patterns and correlate them with clinical course and genotype. Three groups were identified according to clinical severity. Group 1 (n = 5) comprises severe/lethal NM and biopsy in the first days of life. Group 2 (n = 4) includes intermediate NM and biopsy in infancy. Group 3 (n = 5) comprises typical/mild NM and biopsy in childhood or early adult life. Biopsies underwent histoenzymological, immunohistochemical and ultrastructural analysis. Fibre type distribution patterns, rod characteristics, distribution and localization were investigated. Contractile performance was studied in muscle fibre preparations isolated from seven muscle biopsies from each of the three groups. G1 showed significant myofibrillar dissociation and smallness with scattered globular rods in one third of fibres; there was no type 1 predominance. G2 presented milder sarcomeric dissociation, dispersed or clustered nemaline bodies, and type 1 predominance/uniformity. In contrast, G3 had well-delimited clusters of subsarcolemmal elongated rods and type 1 uniformity without sarcomeric alterations. In accordance with the clinical and morphological data, functional studies revealed markedly low forces in muscle bundles from G1 and a better contractile performance in muscle bundles from biopsies of patients from G2, and G3.In conclusion NEB-mutated NM patients present a wide spectrum of morphological features. It is difficult to establish firm genotype phenotype correlation. Interestingly, there was a correlation between clinical severity on the one hand and the degree of sarcomeric dissociation and contractility efficiency on the other. By contrast the percentage of fibres occupied by rods, as well as the quantity and the sub sarcolemmal position of rods, appears to inversely correlate with severity. Based on our observations, we propose myofibrillar dissociation and changes in contractility as an important cause of muscle weakness in NEB-mutated NM patients. Source


Gluckman E.,Institut Universitaire de France
Blood Reviews | Year: 2011

Since the first human cord blood transplant, performed in 1988, cord blood banks have been established worldwide for collection and cryopreservation of cord blood for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has now become one of the most commonly used source of hematopoietic stem cells for allogeneic transplantation. Today a global network of cord blood banks and transplant centers has been established for a common inventory with an estimated 600,000 UCB have been banked and more than 20,000 UCB units distributed worldwide for adults and children with severe hematological diseases. Several studies have shown that the number of cells is the most important factor for engraftment while some degree of HLA mismatches is acceptable. The absence of ethical concern, and the unlimited supply of cells explain the increasing interest of using cord blood for developing regenerative medicine. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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