A matched pair cluster randomized implementation trail to measure the effectiveness of an intervention package aiming to decrease perinatal mortality and increase institution-based obstetric care among indigenous women in Guatemala: Study protocol
Kestler E.,Epidemiological Research Center in Sexual and Reproductive Health |
Walker D.,University of Washington |
Bonvecchio A.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
de Tejada S.S.,Epidemiological Research Center in Sexual and Reproductive Health |
Donner A.,Robarts Research Institute
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth | Year: 2013
Background: Maternal and perinatal mortality continue to be a high priority problem on the health agendas of less developed countries. Despite the progress made in the last decade to quantify the magnitude of maternal mortality, few interventions have been implemented with the intent to measure impact directly on maternal or perinatal deaths. The success of interventions implemented in less developed countries to reduce mortality has been questioned, in terms of the tendency to maintain a clinical perspective with a focus on purely medical care separate from community-based approaches that take cultural and social aspects of maternal and perinatal deaths into account. Our innovative approach utilizes both the clinical and community perspectives; moreover, our study will report the weight that each of these components may have had on reducing perinatal mortality and increasing institution-based deliveries.Methods/Design: A matched pair cluster-randomized trial will be conducted in clinics in four rural indigenous districts with the highest maternal mortality ratios in Guatemala. The individual clinic will serve as the unit of randomization, with 15 matched pairs of control and intervention clinics composing the final sample. Three interventions will be implemented in indigenous, rural and poor populations: a simulation training program for emergency obstetric and perinatal care, increased participation of the professional midwife in strengthening the link between traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the formal health care system, and a social marketing campaign to promote institution-based deliveries. No external intervention is planned for control clinics, although enhanced monitoring, surveillance and data collection will occur throughout the study in all clinics throughout the four districts. All obstetric events occurring in any of the participating health facilities and districts during the 18 months implementation period will be included in the analysis, controlling for the cluster design. Our main outcome measures will be the change in perinatal mortality and in the proportion of institution-based deliveries.Discussion: A unique feature of this protocol is that we are not proposing an individual intervention, but rather a package of interventions, which is designed to address the complexities and realities of maternal and perinatal mortality in developing countries. To date, many other countries, has focused its efforts to decrease maternal mortality indirectly by improving infrastructure and data collection systems rather than on implementing specific interventions to directly improve outcomes.Trial registration: ClinicalTrial.gov,http://NCT01653626. © 2013 Kestler et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Aounallah-Skhiri H.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Aounallah-Skhiri H.,University Pierre and Marie Curie |
El Ati J.,National Institute of Nutrition and Food Technology INNTA |
Traissac P.,IRD Montpellier |
And 5 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2012
Background: In southern and eastern Mediterranean countries, changes in lifestyle and the increasing prevalence of excess weight in childhood are risk factors for high blood pressure (BP) during adolescence and adulthood. The aim of this study was to evaluate the BP status of Tunisian adolescents and to identify associated factors. Methods: A cross-sectional study in 2005, based on a national, stratified, random cluster sample of 1294 boys and 1576 girls aged 15-19 surveyed in home visits. The socio-economic and behavioral characteristics of the adolescents were recorded. Overweight/obesity were assessed by Body Mass Index (BMI) from measured height and weight (WHO, 2007), abdominal obesity by waist circumference (WC). BP was measured twice during the same visit. Elevated BP was systolic (SBP) or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥ 90th of the international reference or ≥ 120/ 80 mm Hg for 15-17 y., and SBP/DBP ≥ 120/80 mm Hg for 18-19 y.; hypertension was SBP/DBP ≥ 95th for 15-17 y. and ≥ 140/90 mm Hg for 18-19 y. Adjusted associations were assessed by logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of elevated BP was 35.1%[32.9-37.4]: higher among boys (46.1% vs. 33.3%; P < 0.0001); 4.7% [3.8-5.9] of adolescents had hypertension. Associations adjusted for all covariates showed independent relationships with BMI and WC: - obesity vs. no excess weight increased elevated BP (boys OR = 2.1[1.0-4.2], girls OR = 2.3[1.3-3.9]) and hypertension (boys OR = 3.5[1.4-8.9], girls OR = 5.4[2.2-13.4]), - abdominal obesity (WC) was also associated with elevated BP in both genders (for boys: 2nd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.7[1.3-2.3], 3rd vs.1st tertile OR = 2.8[1.9-4.2]; for girls: 2nd vs. 1st tertile OR = 1.6[1.2-2.1], 3rd vs.1st tertile OR = 2.1[1.5-3.0]) but only among boys for hypertension. Associations with other covariates were weaker: for boys, hypertension increased somewhat with sedentary lifestyle, while elevated BP was slightly more prevalent among urban girls and those not attending school. Conclusion: Within the limits of BP measurement on one visit only, these results suggest that Tunisian adolescents of both genders are likely not spared from early elevated BP. Though further assessment is likely needed, the strong association with overweight/obesity observed suggests that interventions aimed at changing lifestyles to reduce this main risk factor may also be appropriate for the prevention of elevated BP. © 2012 Aounallah-Skhiri et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Galrraga O.,Brown University |
Galrraga O.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Wirtz V.J.,National Health Research Institute |
Figueroa-Lara A.,National Health Research Institute |
And 6 more authors.
PharmacoEconomics | Year: 2011
As antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIVAIDS is scaled up globally, information on per-person costs is critical to improve efficiency in service delivery and to maximize coverage and health impact. The objective of this study was to review studies on unit costs for delivery of adult and paediatric ART per patient-year, and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions per mother-infant pair screened or treated, in low- and middle-income countries. A systematic review was conducted of English, French and Spanish publications from 2001 to 2009, reporting empirical costing that accounted for at least antiretroviral (ARV) medicines, laboratory testing and personnel. Expenditures were analysed by country-income level and cost component. All costs were standardized to $US, year 2009 values. Several sensitivity analyses were conducted.Analyses covered 29 eligible, comprehensive, costing studies. In the base case, in low-income countries (LIC), median ART cost per patient-year was $US792 (mean: 839, range: 6821089); for lower-middle-income countries (LMIC), the median was $US932 (mean: 1246, range: 1563904); and, for upper-middle-income countries (UMIC), the median was $US1454 (mean: 2783, range: 12305667). ARV drugs were the largest component of overall ART costs in all settings (64, 50 and 47 in LIC, LMIC and UMIC, respectively). Of 26 ART studies, 14 reported the drug regimes used, and only one study explicitly reported second-line treatment costs. The second cost driver was laboratory cost in LIC and LMIC (14 and 20), and personnel costs in UMIC (26). Two ART studies specified the types of laboratory tests costed, and three studies specifically included above facility-level personnel costs. Three studies reported detailed PMTCT costs, and three studies reported on paediatric ART.There is a paucity of data on the full unit costs for delivery of ART and PMTCT, particularly for LIC and middle-income countries. Heterogeneity in activities costed, and insufficient detail regarding components included in the costing, hampers standardization of unit cost measures. Evaluation of programme-level unit costs would benefit from international guidance on standardized costing methods, and expenditure categories and definitions. Future work should help elucidate the sources of the large variations in delivery unit costs across settings with similar income and epidemiological characteristics. © 2011 Adis Data Information BV. All rights reserved.
Sosa-Rubi S.G.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Walker D.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Servan E.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Bautista-Arredondo S.,National Institute of Public Health INSP
Health Policy and Planning | Year: 2011
Background The Mexican programme Oportunidades/Progresa conditionally transfers money to beneficiary families. Over the past 10 years, poor rural women have been obliged to attend antenatal care (ANC) visits and reproductive health talks. We propose that the length of time in the programme influences women's preferences, thus increasing their use not only of services directly linked to the cash transfers, but also of other services, such as clinic-based delivery, whose utilization is not obligatory.Objective To analyse the long-term effect of Oportunidades on women's use of antenatal and delivery care.Methodology 5051 women aged between 15 and 49 years old with at least one child aged less than 24 months living in rural localities were analysed. Multilevel probit and logit models were used to analyse ANC visits and physician/nurse attended delivery, respectively. Models were adjusted with individual and socio-economic variables and the locality's exposure time to Oportunidades.Findings On average women living in localities with longer exposure to Oportunidades report 2.1 more ANC visits than women living in localities with less exposure. Young women aged 15-19 and 20-24 years and living in localities with longer exposure to Oportunidades (since 1998) have 88 and 41 greater likelihood of choosing a physician/nurse vs. traditional midwife for childbirth, respectively. Women of indigenous origin are 68.9 less likely to choose a physician/nurse for delivery care than non-indigenous women.Conclusions An increase in the average number of ANC visits has been achieved among Oportunidades beneficiaries. An indirect effect is the increased selection of a physician/nurse for delivery care among young women living in localities with greater exposure time to Oportunidades. Disadvantaged women in Mexico (indigenous women) continue to have less access to skilled delivery care. Developing countries must develop strategies to increase access and use of skilled obstetric care for marginalized women. © The Author 2011; all rights reserved.
Bautista-Arredondo S.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Colchero M.A.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Romero M.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Conde-Glez C.J.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Sosa-Rubi S.G.,National Institute of Public Health INSP
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Background:Recent evidence points to the apparent increase of HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men (MSM) in different settings with concentrated epidemics, including the Latin American region. In 2011, Mexico implemented an ambitious HIV prevention program in all major cities, funded by the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The program was intended to strengthen the prevention response for the most at risk populations: MSM and injecting drug users. This paper presents the HIV prevalence results of a nationally representative baseline survey in 24 Mexican cities throughout the 5 regions in the country and reports the socio-demographic and sexual risk behaviors that predict the probability of infection.Methods:The survey was implemented in two phases. We first identified and characterized places where MSM gather in each city and then conducted in a second phase, a seroprevalence survey that included rapid HIV testing and a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of HIV was estimated by adjusting for positive predicted value. We applied a probit model to estimate the probability of having a positive result from the HIV test as a function of socio-demographic characteristics and self-reported sexual risk behaviors.Results:We found an overall HIV prevalence among MSM gathering in meeting points of 16.9% [95% CI: 15.6-18.3], significantly higher than previously reported estimates. Our regression results suggest that the risk of infection increases with age, with the number of sexual partners, and among those who play a receptive sexual role, and the risk decreases with higher education.Discussion:Our findings suggest a higher HIV prevalence among MSM than previously acknowledged and that a significant regional variability exist throughout the country. These two findings combined, signal an important dynamic in the epidemic that should be better understood and promptly addressed with strong prevention efforts targeted at key populations. © 2013 Bautista-Arredondo et al.
Monteiro J.F.G.,Brown University |
Monteiro J.F.G.,The Miriam Hospital |
Marshall B.D.L.,Brown University |
Escudero D.,Brown University |
And 7 more authors.
AIDS and Behavior | Year: 2015
Mexico has a concentrated HIV epidemic, with male sex workers constituting a key affected population. We estimated annual HIV cumulative incidence among male sex workers’ partners, and then compared incidence under three hypothetical intervention scenarios: improving condom use; and scaling up HIV treatment as prevention, considering current viral suppression rates (CVS, 60.7 %) or full viral suppression among those treated (FVS, 100 %). Clinical and behavioral data to inform model parameterization were derived from a sample (n = 79) of male sex workers recruited from street locations and Clínica Condesa, an HIV clinic in Mexico City. We estimated annual HIV incidence among male sex workers’ partners to be 8.0 % (95 % CI: 7.3–8.7). Simulation models demonstrated that increasing condom use by 10 %, and scaling up HIV treatment initiation by 50 % (from baseline values) would decrease the male sex workers-attributable annual incidence to 5.2, 4.4 % (CVS) and 3.2 % (FVS), respectively. Scaling up the number of male sex workers on ART and implementing interventions to ensure adherence is urgently required to decrease HIV incidence among male sex workers’ partners in Mexico City. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
Galarraga O.,Brown University |
Galarraga O.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Wirtz V.J.,National Institute of Public Health INSP |
Wirtz V.J.,Boston University |
And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013
Global HIV control funding falls short of need. To maximize health outcomes, it is critical that national governments sustain reasonable commitments, and that international donor assistance be distributed according to country needs and funding gaps. We develop a country classification framework in terms of actual versus expected national domestic funding, considering resource needs and donor financing. With UNAIDS and World Bank data, we examine domestic and donor HIV program funding in relation to need in 84 low- and middle-income countries. We estimate expected domestic contributions per person living with HIV (PLWH) as a function of per capita income, relative size of the health sector, and per capita foreign debt service. Countries are categorized according to levels of actual versus expected domestic contributions, and resource gap. Compared to national resource needs (UNAIDS Investment Framework), we identify imbalances among countries in actual versus expected domestic and donor contributions: 17 countries, with relatively high HIV prevalence and GNI per capita, have domestic funding below expected (median per PLWH $143 and $376, respectively), yet total available funding including from donors would exceed the need ($368 and $305, respectively) if domestic contribution equaled expected. Conversely, 27 countries have actual domestic funding above the expected (medians $294 and $149) but total (domestic+donor) funding does not meet estimated need ($685 and $1,173). Across the 84 countries, in 2009, estimated resource need totaled $10.3 billion, actual domestic contributions $5.1 billion and actual donor contributions $3.7 billion. If domestic contributions would increase to the expected level in countries where the actual was below expected, total domestic contributions would increase to $7.4 billion, turning a funding gap of $1.5 billion into a surplus of $0.8 billion. Even with imperfect funding and resource-need data, the proposed country classification could help improve coherence and efficiency in domestic and international allocations. © 2013 Galárraga et al.
Charvel S.,Mexico Autonomous Institute of Technology ITAM |
Cobo F.,Mexico Autonomous Institute of Technology ITAM |
Hernandez-Avila M.,National Institute of Public Health INSP
Journal of Public Health Policy | Year: 2015
In 2010, the Mexican government implemented a multi-sector agreement to prevent obesity. In response, the Ministries of Health and Education launched a national school-based policy to increase physical activity, improve nutrition literacy, and regulate school food offerings through nutritional guidelines. We studied the Guidelines' negotiation and regulatory review process, including government collaboration and industry response. Within the government, conflicting positions were evident: the Ministries of Health and Education supported the Guidelines as an effective obesity-prevention strategy, while the Ministries of Economics and Agriculture viewed them as potentially damaging to the economy and job generation. The food and beverage industries opposed and delayed the process, arguing that regulation was costly, with negative impacts on jobs and revenues. The proposed Guidelines suffered revisions that lowered standards initially put forward. We documented the need to improve cross-agency cooperation to achieve effective policymaking. The 'siloed' government working style presented a barrier to efforts to resist industry's influence and strong lobbying. Our results are relevant to public health policymakers working in childhood obesity prevention. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Ltd.
Gutierrez J.P.,National Health Research Institute |
Garcia-Saiso S.,Ministryof Health |
Dolci G.F.,Mexican Institute of Social Security IMSS |
Avila M.H.,National Institute of Public Health INSP
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2014
Background: Effective access measures are intended to reflect progress toward universal health coverage. This study proposes an operative approach to measuring effective access: in addition to the lack of financial protection, the willingness to make out-of-pocket payments for health care signifies a lack of effective access to pre-paid services. Methods. Using data from a nationally representative health survey in Mexico, effective access at the individual level was determined by combining financial protection and effective utilization of pre-paid health services as required. The measure of effective access was estimated overall, by sex, by socioeconomic level, and by federal state for 2006 and 2012. Results: In 2012, 48.49% of the Mexican population had no effective access to health services. Though this represents an improvement since 2006, when 65.9% lacked effective access, it still constitutes a major challenge for the health system. Effective access in Mexico presents significant heterogeneity in terms of federal state and socioeconomic level. Conclusions: Measuring effective access will contribute to better target strategies toward universal health coverage. The analysis presented here highlights a need to improve quality, availability, and opportuneness (location and time) of health services provision in Mexico. © 2014 Gutiérrez et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
PubMed | National Institute of Public Health INSP and Mexico Autonomous Institute of Technology ITAM
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of public health policy | Year: 2015
In 2010, the Mexican government implemented a multi-sector agreement to prevent obesity. In response, the Ministries of Health and Education launched a national school-based policy to increase physical activity, improve nutrition literacy, and regulate school food offerings through nutritional guidelines. We studied the Guidelines negotiation and regulatory review process, including government collaboration and industry response. Within the government, conflicting positions were evident: the Ministries of Health and Education supported the Guidelines as an effective obesity-prevention strategy, while the Ministries of Economics and Agriculture viewed them as potentially damaging to the economy and job generation. The food and beverage industries opposed and delayed the process, arguing that regulation was costly, with negative impacts on jobs and revenues. The proposed Guidelines suffered revisions that lowered standards initially put forward. We documented the need to improve cross-agency cooperation to achieve effective policymaking. The siloed government working style presented a barrier to efforts to resist industrys influence and strong lobbying. Our results are relevant to public health policymakers working in childhood obesity prevention.