Insein General Hospital

Rangoon, Myanmar

Insein General Hospital

Rangoon, Myanmar
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Aung N.M.,Yangon University | Hanson J.,Yangon University | Hanson J.,The Kirby Institute | Kyi T.T.,Ministry of Health | And 6 more authors.
AIDS Research and Therapy | Year: 2017

Background: Approximately 0.8% of adults aged 18-49 in Myanmar are seropositive for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Identifying the demographic, epidemiological and clinical characteristics of people living with HIV (PLHIV) is essential to inform optimal management strategies in this resource-limited country. Methods: To create a "snapshot" of the PLHIV seeking anti-retroviral therapy (ART) in Myanmar, data were collected from the registration cards of all patients who had been prescribed ART at two large referral hospitals in Yangon, prior to March 18, 2016. Results and discussion: Anti-retroviral therapy had been prescribed to 2643 patients at the two hospitals. The patients' median [interquartile range (IQR)] age was 37 (31-44) years; 1494 (57%) were male. At registration, injecting drug use was reported in 22 (0.8%), male-to-male sexual contact in eleven (0.4%) and female sex work in eleven (0.4%), suggesting that patients under-report these risk behaviours, that health care workers are uncomfortable enquiring about them or that the two hospitals are under-servicing these populations. All three explanations appear likely. Most patients were symptomatic at registration with 2027 (77%) presenting with WHO stage 3 or 4 disease. In the 2442 patients with a CD4+ T cell count recorded at registration, the median (IQR) count was 169 (59-328) cells/mm3. After a median (IQR) duration of 359 (185-540) days of ART, 151 (5.7%) patients had died, 111 (4.2%) patients had been lost to follow-up, while 2381 were alive on ART. Tuberculosis (TB) co-infection was common: 1083 (41%) were already on anti-TB treatment at registration, while a further 41 (1.7%) required anti-TB treatment during follow-up. Only 21 (0.8%) patients were prescribed isoniazid prophylaxis therapy (IPT); one of these was lost to follow-up, but none of the remaining 20 patients died or required anti-TB treatment during a median (IQR) follow-up of 275 (235-293) days. Conclusions: People living with HIV in Yangon, Myanmar are generally presenting late in their disease course, increasing their risk of death, disease and transmitting the virus. A centralised model of ART prescription struggles to deliver care to the key affected populations. TB co-infection is very common in Myanmar, but despite the proven efficacy of IPT, it is frequently not prescribed. © 2017 The Author(s).


Boonsiriseth K.,Mahidol University | Latt M.M.,Mahidol University | Latt M.M.,Insein General Hospital | Kiattavorncharoen S.,Mahidol University | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery | Year: 2017

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of 8. mg dexamethasone injection into the pterygomandibular space on the postoperative sequelae of lower third molar surgery. A prospective, randomized, controlled, split-mouth study was designed involving 62 lower third molar extractions (31 patients). Prior to surgery, the study group received 2. ml of 4. mg/ml (8. mg) dexamethasone injection through the pterygomandibular space following local anaesthesia; the control group received 2. ml normal saline injection. Facial swelling, mouth opening, pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS), and the number of analgesics consumed were assessed. Descriptive statistics and the independent-samples t-test were used to compare the two groups at P< 0.05. There was a significant reduction in swelling on day 2 postoperative in the dexamethasone group. Mouth opening was also significantly greater on day 2 in the dexamethasone group. The VAS pain score was significantly lower on the day of the operation and first postoperative day in the dexamethasone group, but did not differ significantly between the groups on the other postoperative days. The injection of 8. mg dexamethasone into the pterygomandibular space was effective in reducing postoperative swelling, limited mouth opening, and pain following impacted lower third molar extraction. © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons.


Thit S.S.,Yangon University | Thit S.S.,Insein General Hospital | Aung N.M.,Yangon University | Aung N.M.,Insein General Hospital | And 13 more authors.
BMC Medicine | Year: 2017

Background: The use of the point-of-care lateral flow lipoarabinomannan (LF-LAM) test may expedite tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. However, the test's clinical utility is poorly defined outside sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The study enrolled consecutive HIV-positive adults at a tertiary referral hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. On enrolment, patients had a LF-LAM test performed according to the manufacturer's instructions. Clinicians managing the patients were unaware of the LF-LAM result, which was correlated with the patient's clinical course over the ensuing 6 months. Results: The study enrolled 54 inpatients and 463 outpatients between July 1 and December 31, 2015. On enrolment, the patients' median (interquartile range) CD4 T-cell count was 270 (128-443) cells/mm3. The baseline LF-LAM test was positive in 201/517 (39%). TB was confirmed microbiologically during follow-up in 54/517 (10%), with rifampicin resistance present in 8/54 (15%). In the study's resource-limited setting, extrapulmonary testing for TB was not possible, but after 6 months, 97/201 (48%) with a positive LF-LAM test on enrolment had neither died, required hospitalisation, received a TB diagnosis or received empirical anti-TB therapy, suggesting a high rate of false-positive results. Of the 97 false-positive tests, 89 (92%) were grade 1 positive, suggesting poor test specificity using this cut-off. Only 21/517 (4%) patients were inpatients with TB symptoms and a CD4 T-cell count of < 100 cells/mm3. Five (24%) of these 21 died, three of whom had a positive LF-LAM test on enrolment. However, all three received anti-TB therapy before death - two after diagnosis with Xpert MTB/RIF testing, while the other received empirical treatment. It is unlikely that knowledge of the baseline LF-LAM result would have averted any of the study's other 11 deaths; eight had a negative test, and of the three patients with a positive test, two received anti-TB therapy before death, while one died from laboratory-confirmed cryptococcal meningitis. The test was no better than a simple, clinical history excluding TB during follow-up (negative predictive value (95% confidence interval): 94% (91-97) vs. 94% (91-96)). Conclusions: The LF-LAM test had limited clinical utility in the management of HIV-positive patients in this Asian referral hospital setting. © 2017 The Author(s).


Aung N.M.,Insein General Hospital | Kaung M.,Hpaan Hospital | Kyi T.T.,Insein General Hospital | Min M.,Myanmar Medical Association | And 4 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Background A conservative approach to fluid resuscitation improves survival in children with severe malaria; however, this strategy has not been formally evaluated in adults with the disease. Methods Adults hospitalised with malaria at two tertiary referral hospitals in Myanmar received intravenous fluid replacement with isotonic saline, administered at a maintenance rate using a simple weight-based algorithm. Clinical and biochemical indices were followed sequentially. Results Of 61 adults enrolled, 34 (56%) had Plasmodium falciparum mono-infection, 17 (28%) Plasmodium vivax mono-infection and 10 (16%) mixed infection; 27 (44%) patients were at high risk of death (P. falciparum infection and RCAM score ≥ 2). In the first six hours of hospitalisation patients received a mean 1.7 ml/kg/hour (range: 1.3-2.2) of intravenous fluid and were able to drink a mean of 0.8 ml/kg/hour (range: 0-3). Intravenous fluid administration and oral intake were similar for the remainder of the first 48 hours of hospitalisation. All 61 patients survived to discharge. No patient developed Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, a requirement for renal replacement therapy or hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 60mmHg). Plasma lactate was elevated (> 2 mmol/L) on enrolment in 26 (43%) patients but had declined by 6 hours in 25 (96%) and was declining at 24 hours in the other patient. Plasma creatinine was elevated (> 120 μmol/L) on enrolment in 17 (28%) patients, but was normal or falling in 16 (94%) at 48 hours and declining in the other patient by 72 hours. There was no clinically meaningful increase in plasma lactate or creatinine in any patient with a normal value on enrolment. Patients receiving fluid replacement with the conservative fluid replacement algorithmwere more likely to survive than historical controls in the same hospitals who had received fluid replacement guided by clinical judgement in the year prior to the study (p = 0.03), despite having more severe disease (p < 0.001). Conclusions A conservative fluid resuscitation strategy appears safe in adults hospitalised with malaria. © 2015 Aung et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


PubMed | Hpa an Hospital, Insein General Hospital, Myanmar Medical Association and Charles Darwin University
Type: Clinical Trial | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

A conservative approach to fluid resuscitation improves survival in children with severe malaria; however, this strategy has not been formally evaluated in adults with the disease.Adults hospitalised with malaria at two tertiary referral hospitals in Myanmar received intravenous fluid replacement with isotonic saline, administered at a maintenance rate using a simple weight-based algorithm. Clinical and biochemical indices were followed sequentially.Of 61 adults enrolled, 34 (56%) had Plasmodium falciparum mono-infection, 17 (28%) Plasmodium vivax mono-infection and 10 (16%) mixed infection; 27 (44%) patients were at high risk of death (P. falciparum infection and RCAM score 2). In the first six hours of hospitalisation patients received a mean 1.7 ml/kg/hour (range: 1.3-2.2) of intravenous fluid and were able to drink a mean of 0.8 ml/kg/hour (range: 0-3). Intravenous fluid administration and oral intake were similar for the remainder of the first 48 hours of hospitalisation. All 61 patients survived to discharge. No patient developed Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome, a requirement for renal replacement therapy or hypotension (mean arterial pressure < 60 mmHg). Plasma lactate was elevated (> 2 mmol/L) on enrolment in 26 (43%) patients but had declined by 6 hours in 25 (96%) and was declining at 24 hours in the other patient. Plasma creatinine was elevated (> 120 mol/L) on enrolment in 17 (28%) patients, but was normal or falling in 16 (94%) at 48 hours and declining in the other patient by 72 hours. There was no clinically meaningful increase in plasma lactate or creatinine in any patient with a normal value on enrolment. Patients receiving fluid replacement with the conservative fluid replacement algorithm were more likely to survive than historical controls in the same hospitals who had received fluid replacement guided by clinical judgement in the year prior to the study (p = 0.03), despite having more severe disease (p < 0.001).A conservative fluid resuscitation strategy appears safe in adults hospitalised with malaria.


PubMed | Insein General Hospital and Charles Darwin University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Open forum infectious diseases | Year: 2016

Background. African children with severe falciparum malaria commonly have concomitant Gram-negative bacteremia, but co-infection has been thought to be relatively rare in adult malaria. Methods. Adults with a diagnosis of falciparum malaria hospitalized at 4 tertiary referral hospitals in Myanmar had blood cultures collected at admission. The frequency of concomitant bacteremia and the clinical characteristics of the patients, with and without bacteremia, were explored. Results. Of 67 adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria, 9 (13% [95% confidence interval, 5.3%-21.6%]) were also bacteremic on admission, 7 (78%) with Gram-negative enteric organisms (Escherichia coli [n = 3], typhoidal Salmonella species [n = 3], nontyphoidal Salmonella [n = 1]). Bacteremic adults had more severe disease (median Respiratory Coma Acidosis Malaria [RCAM] score 3; interquartile range [IQR], 1-4) than those without bacteremia (median RCAM score 1; IQR, 1-2) and had a higher frequency of acute kidney injury (50% vs 16%, P = .03). Although 35 (52%) were at high risk of death (RCAM score 2), all 67 patients in the study survived, 51 (76%) of whom received empirical antibiotics on admission. Conclusions. Bacteremia was relatively frequent in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in Myanmar. Like children in high transmission settings, bacteremic adults in this low transmission setting were sicker than nonbacteremic adults, and were often difficult to identify at presentation. Empirical antibiotics may also be appropriate in adults hospitalized with falciparum malaria in low transmission settings, until bacterial infection is excluded.

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