Insect Research and Development Ltd

Cambridge, United Kingdom

Insect Research and Development Ltd

Cambridge, United Kingdom
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Barker S.C.,University of Queensland | Burgess I.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Meinking T.L.,International Research Team | Mumcuoglu K.Y.,Hebrew University of Jerusalem
International Journal of Dermatology | Year: 2012

Pediculosis capitis, infestation with head lice, is common in all human societies. Chemical pediculicides are often used to control head louse infestations, particularly in wealthy communities. A significant number of different protocols have been used to test the efficacy and safety of pediculicides in clinical trials; this constrains scientific comparison of the evidence for efficacy of the different pediculicides. Here we recommend protocols for clinical trials of the efficacy and safety of single-, two-, and three-treatment interventions. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

Burgess I.F.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Brunton E.R.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Burgess N.A.,Insect Research and Development Ltd
BMC Dermatology | Year: 2013

Background: A previous study indicated that a single application of 4% dimeticone liquid gel was effective in treating head louse infestation. This study was designed to confirm this in comparison with two applications of 1% permethrin.Methods: We have performed a single centre parallel group, randomised, controlled, open label, community based trial, with domiciliary visits, in Cambridgeshire, UK. Treatments were allocated through sealed instructions derived from a computer generated list. We enrolled 90 children and adults with confirmed head louse infestation analysed by intention to treat (80 per-protocol after 4 drop outs and 6 non-compliant). The comparison was between 4% dimeticone liquid gel applied once for 15 minutes and 1% permethrin creme rinse applied for 10 minutes, repeated after 7 days as per manufacturer's directions. Evaluated by elimination of louse infestation after completion of treatment application regimen.Results: Intention to treat comparison of a single dimeticone liquid gel treatment with two of permethrin gave success for 30/43 (69.8%) of the dimeticone liquid gel group and 7/47 (14.9%) of the permethrin creme rinse group (OR 13.19, 95% CI 4.69 to 37.07) (p < 0.001). Per protocol results were similar with 27/35 (77.1%) success for dimeticone versus 7/45 (15.6%) for permethrin. Analyses by household gave essentially similar outcomes.Conclusions: The study showed one 15 minute application of 4% dimeticone liquid gel was superior to two applications of 1% permethrin creme rinse (p < 0.001). The low efficacy of permethrin suggests it should be withdrawn.Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN88144046. © 2013 Burgess et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Burgess I.F.,Insect Research and Development Ltd
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2010

Eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis De Geer (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), are difficult to remove because the female louse fixes them to hairs using a proteinaceous secretion that hardens within seconds. The persistent eggshells are harmless but unsightly and are often mistaken for an active infestation. Combing with a fine comb (nit comb) does not readily remove the eggs or empty eggshells because of the resilience of the fixative and both folk remedies and medical products have claimed to facilitate their removal. Measurement of the force required to initiate sliding of the egg fixative using a slip-peel tester was unable to detect evidence that any of three products which claimed to have egg-loosening properties (Step 2™ Nit Removal System, Clear® Lice Egg Remover, RID® Lice Egg Loosener Gel) had any activity or exerted any effect on the egg fixative beyond the lubricating effects conveyed by water or conventional hair conditioner. © 2010 The Author. Journal compilation © 2010 The Royal Entomological Society.

Burgess I.F.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Burgess N.A.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Brunton E.R.,Insect Research and Development Ltd
BMC Pharmacology and Toxicology | Year: 2013

Background: Tocopheryl acetate is viscous oily fluid used in a range of preparations for skin and scalp care in Italy. Observational and in vitro data have suggested a high level of efficacy against head louse infestation. The purpose of this investigation was to confirm the activity of tocopheryl acetate in a clinical setting in comparison with a standard widely used preparation. Methods: A spray formulation containing tocopheryl acetate 20% in cyclomethicone was compared with permethrin 1% creme rinse for treatment of head louse infestation in a randomised, assessor blind, trial. Forty-five people were treated on two occasions 7 days apart. The spray was applied to dry hair for 20 minutes then washed. Participants treated with permethrin washed their hair and towel dried it before treatment for 10 minutes. Assessments were made by dry detection combing 1, 6, 9, and 14 days after first treatment. Results: The tocopheryl acetate 20% spray was significantly (p = 0.033) more effective than permethrin 1%, using intention to treat worst case analysis, in which there were 13/23 (56.5%) successful treatments for tocopheryl acetate compared with 5/22 (22.7%) for permethrin. After unprecedented issues of re-infestation within households had been taken into account the underlying cure rate was 17/23 (73.9%) for tocopheryl acetate compared with 5/22 (22.7%), Odds Ratio 9.63 (95% CI, 2.46 to 37.68) (p < 0.001).Conclusions: The tocopheryl acetate spray was significantly more effective than the permethrin product, was cosmetically acceptable, and not affected by current problems with resistance. Trial registration: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN45553737. © 2013 Burgess et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Burgess I.F.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Burgess N.A.,Insect Research and Development Ltd
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2011

Background. Dimeticone 4% lotion is an effective and widely accepted treatment for head louse infestation. However, it is a highly mobile fluid that some people find difficult to apply and is mainly left on the hair for 8 hours or overnight. User preference is for a more manageable and viscous product that can be used with a short application time. Findings. This proof of concept study in 41 people investigated dimeticone 4% liquid gel, a product that is easier to apply than the lotion, applied for 15 minutes on two occasions a week apart. We found that head lice were eliminated from all participants following the first application of product. We did not find lice of any stage on any participant during four post treatment assessments and particularly, unlike other treatments, no young nymphs on days 1 and 6 prior to the second treatment, indicating ovicidal as well as pediculicidal activity. Conclusions. Dimeticone 4% liquid gel has demonstrated efficacy greater than other similar products and the evidence obtained indicates elimination of head louse infestation with a single 15 minute application. Trial registration. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN59227204. © 2011 Burgess et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Burgess I.F.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Brunton E.R.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | French R.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Burgess N.A.,Insect Research and Development Ltd
BMJ Open | Year: 2014

Objectives: To determine whether regular use of a spray containing 1,2-octanediol 1%, which has been shown to inhibit survival of head lice, is able to work as a preventive against establishment of new infestations. Setting: Randomised, double-blind, cross-over, community study in Cambridgeshire, UK. Participants: 63 male and female schoolchildren aged 4-16 years judged to have a high risk of recurrent infestation. Only the youngest member of a household attending school participated. Interventions: Participants were treated to eliminate lice, randomised between 1% octanediol or placebo sprays for 6 weeks then crossed-over to the other spray for 6 weeks. Parents applied the sprays at least twice weekly or more frequently if the hair was washed. Investigators monitored weekly for infestation and replenished supplies of spray. Primary and secondary outcome measures: The primary endpoint was the time taken until the first infestation event occurred. The secondary measure was safety of the product in regular use. Results: Intention-to-treat analysis found a total of 32 confirmed infestations in 20 participants, with 9 of them infested while using both products. In these nine participants the time to first infestation showed a significant advantage to 1% octanediol (p=0.0129). Per-protocol analysis showed only trends because the population included was not large enough to demonstrate significance. There were no serious adverse events and only two adverse events possibly related to treatment, one was a case of transient erythema and another of a rash that resolved after 5 days. Conclusions: Routine use of 1% octanediol spray provided a significant level of protection from infestation. It was concluded that this product is effective if applied regularly and thoroughly. Trial registration number: ISRCTN09524995.

Burgess I.F.,Insect Research and Development Ltd
Tropical Medicine and Health | Year: 2015

The article on use of dimeticone for treatment of epidermal parasitic skin diseases is potentially confusing and misleading because, in a practical sense, only head louse infestation can be treated with this material. Scabies mites are unaffected by silicones and use of dimeticone against other ectoparasites may have unwanted side effects such as anaphylactiform reactions or increased risk of pathogen transmission. © 2015 by The Japanese Society of Tropical Medicine.

Burgess I.F.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Lee P.N.,PN Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd | Kay K.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Jones R.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Brunton E.R.,Insect Research and Development Ltd
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Background: Interest in developing physically active pediculicides has identified new active substances. The objective was to evaluate a new treatment for clinical efficacy. Methods and Findings: We describe the selection of 1,2-octanediol as a potential pediculicide. Clinical studies were community based. The main outcome measure was no live lice, after two treatments, with follow up visits over 14 days. Study 1 was a proof of concept with 18/20 (90%) participants cured. Study 2 was a multicentre, parallel, randomised, observer-blind study (520 participants) that compared 0.5% malathion liquid with 1,2-octanediol lotion (20% alcohol) applied 2-2.5 hours or 8 hours/overnight. 1,2-octanediol lotion was significantly (p≤0.0005) more effective with success for 124/175 (70.9%) RR = 1.50 (97.5% CI, 1.22 to 1.85) for 2-2.5 hours, and 153/174 (87.9%) RR = 1.86 (97.5% CI, 1.54 to 2.26) for 8 hours/overnight compared with 81/171 (47.4%) for malathion. Study 3, a two centre, parallel, randomised, observer-blind study (121 participants), compared 1,2-octanediol lotion, 2-2.5 hours with 1,2-octanediol alcohol free mousse applied for 2-2.5 hours or 8 hours/overnight. The mousse applied for 8 hours/overnight cured 31/40 (77.5%), compared with 24/40 (60.0%) for lotion (RR = 1.29, 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.75; NNT = 5.7) but mousse applied for 2-2.5 hours 17/41 (41.5%) was less effective than lotion (RR = 0.69, 95% CI, 0.44 to 1.08). Adverse events were more common using 1,2-octanediol lotion at both 2-2.5 hours (12.0%, p = 0.001) and 8 hours/overnight (14.9%, p≤0.0005), compared with 0.5% malathion (2.3%). Similar reactions were more frequent (p≤0.045) using lotion compared with mousse. Conclusions: 1,2-octanediol was found to eliminate head louse infestation. It is believed to disrupt the insect's cuticular lipid, resulting in dehydration. The alcohol free mousse is more acceptable exhibiting significantly fewer adverse reactions. Trial registrations: ISRCTN66611560, ISRCTN91870666, ISRCTN28722846 © 2012 Burgess et al.

Burgess I.F.,Insect Research and Development Ltd
Medical and Veterinary Entomology | Year: 2014

There are no rigorous data on how long eggs of the head louse, Pediculus capitis (Phthiraptera: Pediculidae), take to hatch. Pediculicide users often report re-infestations after apparently successful treatments in the absence of infective contacts. This study aimed to resolve the question of whether some louse eggs hatch after the completion of treatment, thereby giving rise to a new infestation. Data were extracted from the records of lice collected after treatments in 20 clinical intervention trials. All datasets were eliminated except those in which only newly hatched louse nymphs were found prior to the final assessment. This excluded the possibility that new eggs were laid after the first treatment and thus any young lice found must have originated from eggs laid before the start of treatment. This identified 23 of 1895 (1.2%) records with evidence of louse nymphs emerging at 13 days or more after the first treatment, 3-6 days longer than previous estimates. Current treatment regimens for pediculicides of two applications 7-10 days apart appear inadequate, which may explain continuing infestation in the community. Therefore, it is suggested that a revised approach using three treatments applied at intervals of 1 week should prevent the survival of any nymphs and their development into a new generation of adults. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

Burgess I.F.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Brunton E.R.,Insect Research and Development Ltd | Burgess N.A.,Insect Research and Development Ltd
European Journal of Pediatrics | Year: 2010

Permethrin is the most widely used pediculicide, but evidence of resistance from several countries and anecdotal reports from Germany suggest that permethrin lotion is now less effective. We designed a randomized, controlled, parallel group trial involving 100 participants with active head louse infestation to investigate the activity of a coconut and anise spray and to see whether permethrin lotion is still effective, using two applications of product 9 days apart. The spray was significantly more successful (41/50, 82.0%) cures compared with permethrin (21/50, 42.0%; p<0.0001, difference 40.0%, 95% confidence interval of 22.5% to 57.5%). Per-protocol success was 83.3% and 44.7%, respectively. Thirty-three people reported irritant reactions following alcohol contact with excoriated skin. We concluded that, although permethrin lotion is still effective for some people, the coconut and anise spray can be a significantly more effective alternative treatment. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.

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