INSEAD Campus Europe

Fontainebleau, France

INSEAD Campus Europe

Fontainebleau, France
SEARCH FILTERS
Time filter
Source Type

Starr K.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Talens Peiro L.,INSEAD Campus Europe | Lombardi L.,University of Florence | Gabarrell X.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Villalba G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014

Carbon mineralization is a promising process for carbon dioxide (CO 2) capture and storage, and it can also be applied for biogas upgrading. This paper uses a life cycle assessment to identify possible methods of improving and reducing the environmental impact of novel biogas upgrading technologies. The two novel pilot-scale technologies that are assessed are alkaline absorption with regeneration (AwR) process and bottom ash for biogas upgrading (BABIU) process. These technologies are still at the pilot-plant scale, which offers the opportunity to identify how their environmental impact can be reduced before industrial-scale production occurs. The AwR technology uses an alkaline solution of either potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide to capture the CO2 and air pollution control residues to regenerate the solution. The BABIU process uses bottom ash (BA) from municipal solid waste incinerators to capture CO2 in a direct gas/solid contact process. For the AwR process, focus was placed on the reuse of wastewater (air pollution control residues require pre- and post-washing steps) and reagent type and concentration. Further improvements have focused on reagent and electricity use in AwR and the transport of BA for BABIU. The lowest environmental impact for AwR resulted when NaOH and in-process wastewater was reused. Even in such a process setting, AwR still has a higher environmental impact in 11 of 12 categories compared to other conventional biogas upgrading processes. On average, the BABIU process has a 73% lower impact than AwR and is comparable to conventional technologies. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Starr K.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Gabarrell X.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Villalba G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona | Talens Peiro L.,INSEAD Campus Europe | Lombardi L.,University of Florence
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2014

An alternative source of methane that can also reduce the greenhouse gas effect is one that comes from the upgrading of biogas. This paper studies eight technologies through life cycle assessment (LCA). Six of the technologies are ones that are already on the market and the two others are novel technologies that use carbon mineralization to store CO2 upon their removal. The two novel technologies include alkaline with regeneration (AwR) and bottom ash upgrading (BABIU). These technologies use waste rich in calcium, from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWI), to store the CO2 from biogas. Among all conventional technologies, high pressure water scrubbing and chemical scrubbing with amine had the lowest CO2 impacts. Of the novel technologies BABIU saves 10% more CO2 than AwR. An uncertainty analysis and a material flow analysis demonstrated that proximity to a MSWI is an important factor to consider. As well, it was seen that while the technology is promising it cannot be applied to an entire country if the proper infrastructure is not in place. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Ayres R.U.,INSEAD Campus Europe | Talens Peiro L.,INSEAD Campus Europe | Villalba Mendez G.,Autonomous University of Barcelona
Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Efficiency is a term generally used to determine how well a system performs. However, efficiency can have different meanings and, unaccompanied by a formal definition or taken out of context, can lead to serious misconceptions. In many official publications, efficiency is calculated as the ratio of useful output to energy input. This measure reflects the first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy) but does not reflect the potential for improvement. A better measure, that also reflects the second law of thermodynamics, is the ratio of the potential useful (exergy) output to the potential useful (exergy) input. We estimate second law efficiencies for the inorganic and organic chemical industries to be 29% and 35% respectively. We also estimate the efficiency of the U.S. industry sector as a whole to be 37.6%, as compared to only 7.7% for the overall U.S. economy. These figures are far lower than the "first law" figures published by the U.S. Department of Energy (80% for industry and 42.5% overall) and they imply a significant potential for improvement. © 2011 American Chemical Society.


PubMed | INSEAD Campus Europe
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science & technology | Year: 2011

Efficiency is a term generally used to determine how well a system performs. However, efficiency can have different meanings and, unaccompanied by a formal definition or taken out of context, can lead to serious misconceptions. In many official publications, efficiency is calculated as the ratio of useful output to energy input. This measure reflects the first law of thermodynamics (conservation of energy) but does not reflect the potential for improvement. A better measure, that also reflects the second law of thermodynamics, is the ratio of the potential useful (exergy) output to the potential useful (exergy) input. We estimate second law efficiencies for the inorganic and organic chemical industries to be 29% and 35% respectively. We also estimate the efficiency of the U.S. industry sector as a whole to be 37.6%, as compared to only 7.7% for the overall U.S. economy. These figures are far lower than the first law figures published by the U.S. Department of Energy (80% for industry and 42.5% overall) and they imply a significant potential for improvement.

Loading INSEAD Campus Europe collaborators
Loading INSEAD Campus Europe collaborators