De Vericourt F.,INSEAD |
Jennings O.B.,Duke University
Operations Research | Year: 2011
In this paper, we present a closed queueing model to determine efficient nurse staffing policies. We explicitly model the workload experienced by s nurses within a single medical unit with n homogeneous patients as a closed M/M/s==n queueing system, where each patient alternates between requiring assistance and not. The performance of the medical unit is based on the probability of excessive delay, the relative frequency with which the delay between the onset of patient neediness and the provision of care from a nurse exceeds a given time threshold. Using new many-server asymptotic results, we find that effective staffing policies should deviate from threshold-specific nurse-to-patient ratios by factors that take into account the total number of patients present in the unit. In particular, our staffing rule significantly differs from California Bill AB 394, legislation that mandates fixed nurse-to-patient staffing ratios. Simulations show that our results are robust to delay-dependent service times, generally distributed service times, and nonhomogeneous patients, i.e., those with different acuity levels. © 2011 INFORMS.
Wansink B.,Cornell University |
Chandon P.,INSEAD |
Chandon P.,Institute for Cardio metabolism and Nutrition
Journal of Consumer Psychology | Year: 2014
We first choose what to eat and then we choose how much to eat. Yet as consumer psychologists, we understand food choice much better than food consumption quantity. This review focuses on three powerful drivers of food consumption quantity: 1) Sensory cues (how your senses react), 2) emotional cues (how you feel), and 3) normative cues (how you believe you are supposed to eat). These drivers influence consumption quantities partly because they bias our consumption monitoring-how much attention we pay to how much we eat. To date, consumption quantity research has comfortably focused on the first two drivers and on using education to combat overeating. In contrast, new research on consumption norms can uncover small changes in the eating environment (such as package downsizing, smaller dinnerware, and reduced visibility and convenience) that can be easily implemented in kitchens, restaurants, schools, and public policies to improve our monitoring of how much we eat and to help solve mindless overeating. It is easier to change our food environment than to change our mind. © 2014 Society for Consumer Psychology.
Pitesa M.,Grenoble Graduate School of Business |
Psychological Science | Year: 2014
In the research presented here, we tested the idea that a lack of material resources (e.g., low income) causes people to make harsher moral judgments because a lack of material resources is associated with a lower ability to cope with the effects of others' harmful behavior. Consistent with this idea, results from a large cross-cultural survey (Study 1) showed that both a chronic (due to low income) and a situational (due to inflation) lack of material resources were associated with harsher moral judgments. The effect of inflation was stronger for low-income individuals, whom inflation renders relatively more vulnerable. In a follow-up experiment (Study 2), we manipulated whether participants perceived themselves as lacking material resources by employing different anchors on the scale they used to report their income. The manipulation led participants in the material-resources-lacking condition to make harsher judgments of harmful, but not of nonharmful, transgressions, and this effect was explained by a sense of vulnerability. Alternative explanations were excluded. These results demonstrate a functional and contextually situated nature of moral psychology. © The Author(s) 2014.
Sweldens S.,INSEAD |
Corneille O.,Catholic University of Louvain |
Yzerbyt V.,Catholic University of Louvain
Personality and Social Psychology Review | Year: 2014
This article provides a review of past and contemporary debates regarding the role of awareness in attitude formation through evaluative conditioning (EC), that is, by repeatedly pairing a stimulus with other stimuli of positive or negative valence. Because EC is considered the most prototypical method to form and change the network of evaluative associations in memory, the role of awareness in this effect is critical to the question of whether attitudes may be formed and changed through dual processes. We analyze the reasons why there has been so much discussion and disagreement regarding the role of awareness, review past and contemporary methodologies and their limitations, discuss the role of mental processes and conditioning procedures, and identify promising directions for future research in this area. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.
Psychological science : a journal of the American Psychological Society / APS | Year: 2010
The current research is the first investigation of how the effects of expressing discrete emotions in negotiations vary across cultures. In a hypothetical negotiation scenario (Study 1) and a computer-mediated negotiation simulation (Study 2), expressing anger (relative to not expressing anger) elicited larger concessions from European American negotiators, but smaller concessions from Asian and Asian American negotiators. A third study provided evidence that this effect is due to different cultural norms about the appropriateness of anger expressions in negotiations: When we explicitly manipulated anger expressions to be appropriate, Asian and Asian American negotiators made larger concessions to the angry opponent, and their concessions were as large as was typical for European American negotiators; when we explicitly manipulated anger expressions to be inappropriate, European American negotiators made smaller concessions to the angry opponent, and their concessions were as small as was typical for Asian and Asian American negotiators. Implications for current understanding of culture, emotions, and negotiations are discussed.