De Santis A.,INSA |
Asner G.P.,Stanford University |
Vaughan P.J.,Laboratorio Of Espectro Radiometria Y Teledeteccion Ambiental Cchs Csic |
Knapp D.E.,Stanford University
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2010
Uncertainties in burning efficiency (BE) estimates can lead to large errors in fire emission quantification (from 23% to 46%). One of the main causes of these errors is the spatial variability of fuel consumption within burned areas. This paper studies whether burn severity (BS) maps can be used to improve BE assessment. A burn severity map of two large fires in California was obtained by inverting a simulation model constrained by post-fire observations from Landsat TM imagery. Model output values of BS were validated against field measurements, obtaining a high correlation (R2 = 0.85) and low errors (Root Mean Square Error, RMSE = 0.14) throughout a wide range of BS levels. The BS map obtained was then used to adjust BE reference values per vegetation type found in the area before the fire. The adjusted burning efficiency (BEadj) was compared to the burned biomass, which was estimated by subtracting vegetation indices from pre- and post-fire images. Results showed a high correlation for conifers (R2 = 0.75) and hardwoods (R2 = 0.73), and a moderate correlation (R2 ∼ 0.5) for shrubs and grasslands. In general, for all vegetation types BEadj performed better (R2 = 0.4-0.75) than literature-based BE (R2 < 0.0001). This study demonstrates: (i) the consistency of the simulation model inversion for BS estimation in temperate ecosystems, and (ii) the improvement of BE estimation when the spatial variability of the combustion was quantified in terms of BS. © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Seguy S.,INSA |
Insperger T.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics |
Arnaud L.,National Engineering School of Tarbes |
Dessein G.,National Engineering School of Tarbes |
Peigne G.,École Centrale Nantes
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2010
Spindle speed variation is a well-known technique to suppress regenerative machine tool vibrations, but it is usually considered to be effective only for low spindle speeds. In this paper, the effect of spindle speed variation is analyzed in the high-speed domain for spindle speeds corresponding to the first flip (period doubling) and to the first Hopf lobes. The optimal amplitudes and frequencies of the speed modulations are computed using the semidiscretization method. It is shown that period doubling chatter can effectively be suppressed by spindle speed variation, although, the technique is not effective for the quasiperiodic chatter above the Hopf lobe. The results are verified by cutting tests. Some special cases are also discussed where the practical behavior of the system differs from the predicted one in some ways. For these cases, it is pointed out that the concept of stability is understood on the scale of the principal period of the system-that is, the speed modulation period for variable spindle speed machining and the tooth passing period for constant spindle speed machining. © 2009 Springer-Verlag London Limited.
Valcarce A.,TriaGnoSys GmbH |
Nagy L.,Hungarian Telecommunication Association |
Wagen J.-F.,BME |
IEEE Vehicular Technology Magazine | Year: 2011
Owing to its direct applicability in solving problems of the telecommunications industry, propagation prediction for a long time has been an important area of research and development. Because of the increasing complexity of wireless networks, growing number of smaller cells, and higher intercell interference, software tools that aid in network optimization are necessary. Therefore, in the study of particular environments, where wireless networks are deployed, deterministic propagation models play an important role. © 2011 IEEE.
Coelho A.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge Insa |
Picanco I.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge Insa |
Seuanes F.,INSA |
Seixas M.T.,INSA |
Faustino P.,Instituto Nacional Of Saude Dr Ricardo Jorge Insa
Blood Cells, Molecules, and Diseases | Year: 2010
Globin genes, which encode the protein subunits of hemoglobin (Hb), are organized in two different gene clusters and present a coordinated and differential pattern of expression during development. Concerning the human α-globin gene cluster (located at chromosome region 16p13.3), four upstream highly conserved elements known as multispecies conserved sequences (MCS-R1-4) or DNase I hypersensitive sites (HSs) are implicated in the long-range regulation of downstream gene expression. However, only the absence of the MCS-R2 site (HS-40) has proven to drastically downregulate the expression of those genes, and consequently, it has been regarded as the major and crucial distal regulatory element.In this study, Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification was used to screen for deletions in the telomeric region of the short arm of chromosome 16, in an attempt to explain the α-thalassemia or the HbH disease present in a group of Portuguese patients. We report four novel and five uncommon deletions that remove the α-globin distal regulatory elements and/or the complete α-globin gene cluster. Interestingly, one of them occurred de novo and removes all HSs except HS-10, while other eliminates only the HS-40 site, the latter being replaced by the insertion of a 39 nucleotide orphan sequence.Our results demonstrate that HS-10 alone does not significantly enhance the α-globin gene expression. The absence of HS-40 in homozygosity, found in a patient with Hb H disease, strongly downregulates the expression of α-globin genes but it is not associated with a complete absence of α-globin chain production. The study of naturally occurring deletions in this region is of great interest to understand the role of each upstream regulatory element in the native human erythroid environment. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Boryczko K.,Rzeszow University of Technology |
Piegdon I.,Rzeszow University of Technology |
Safety, Reliability and Risk Analysis: Beyond the Horizon - Proceedings of the European Safety and Reliability Conference, ESREL 2013 | Year: 2014
At present, many types of software based on high performing models are available in the field of risk analysis. RENO software tool is a powerful and friendly-user platform for building and running complex risk analysis. It can handle a large set of probabilistic and deterministic scenarios using an intuitive flowchart modeling approach and simulation. The paper proposes a method to perform probabilistic risk analysis for Collective Water Supply System (CWSS), using RENO software. Examples are illustrated with flowcharting models. Simulations are used to estimate the reliability of the CWSS. The examples are academic so that they could be verified analytically and demonstrate the simulation capabilities of RENO software. © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, London.
News Article | January 26, 2016
A group of smart materials known as "electrostrictive polymers" have been explored for years by researchers at the INSA de Lyon for their potential mechanical energy harvesting abilities. This week in the journal Applied Physics Letters, the group reports that introducing a plasticizer into these materials offers an efficient way to improve their mechanical energy harvesting performance. This is a significant breakthrough because one of the biggest challenges for the development of mechanical energy harvesting via electrostrictive polymers is being able to improve their performance. As a group of smart materials, electrostrictive polymers can produce field-induced strain when exposed to an applied external electric field. "And this strain has a quadric—equation described by the second degree—relationship with the applied electric field," explained Xunqian Yin, lead author and a researcher at the INSA de Lyon. The group's work centers largely on the piezoelectric effect, which refers to the accumulation of electric charge in certain crystalline solids without a symmetric center in response to an applied mechanical stress or strain. In this case, "the electrostrictive polymers are non-piezoelectric in nature," said Yin. "But a pseudo-piezoelectric effect can be induced for electrostrictive polymers when they're exposed to a large applied bias DC electric field. As a result, the pseudo-piezoelectric effect was adopted for the mechanical energy harvesting via electrostrictive polymers." The group studied the influences on mechanical energy harvesting of a variety of operating conditions, including large applied bias DC electric field, as well as the amplitude and frequency of applied external strain. They discovered that increasing the applied bias provides a way to improve the energy conversion efficiency. In particular, when they worked with a plasticizer-modified "terpolymer," it offered improved mechanical energy harvesting performance, especially when imposed to the same force level, and it can be tapped to create highly sensitive force sensors. "The 'lossy' dielectric and mechanical nature of the modified terpolymer play an important role for energy harvesting based on electrostrictive polymers," Yin said. Thanks to its large pseudo-piezoelectric coefficient, which is a result of the improved electromechanical coefficient that comes from introducing a plasticizer, "the modified terpolymer thin film can lead to piezoelectric active sensors, such as force sensors," pointed out Yin. "Combining these sensors with advanced fabrication technologies—inkjet or 3D printing—should make it easier to build a network of sensors." Next, the group plans to explore "the role that the electrostrictive polymer's lossy nature plays during the mechanical-to-electrical energy conversion process to establish guidelines for the development of mechanical energy harvesters based on electrostrictive polymers," said Yin. The group will also attempt "to find a more efficient plasticizer to modify terpolymer, which can contribute to lower energy losses and also improve its electromechanical performances under a low applied electric field," added Yin. "The lower the electric field, the safer and more convenient it is for applications." Explore further: Raiders of the lost amp More information: "Mechanical energy harvesting via a plasticizer-modified electrostrictive polymer" Xunqian Yin, Mickaël Lallart, Pierre-Jean Cottinet, Daniel Guyomar and Jean-Fabien Capsal, Applied Physics Letters, January 26, 2016, DOI: 10.1063/1.4939859
News Article | February 22, 2017
Jiménez-Tuñón aporta 15 años liderazgo y experiencia operativa en la Industria de Telecomunicaciones y se centrará en dar soporte a la aceleración del Plan de ventas a nivel mundial NEW YORK, 22 de febrero de 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Pareteum Corporation (NYSE MKT: TEUM) ("Pareteum" o la "Compañía"), un proveedor internacional líder en servicios, plataformas digitales y software de redes móviles y de telecomunicaciones con sede en Nueva York (Estados Unidos), ha anunciado hoy el nombramiento de Luis Jiménez-Tuñón al Consejo de Administración de la Compañía, como Consejero Independiente, y con fecha de efectividad 1 de Marzo de 2017. Jiménez-Tuñón es un líder industrial reconocido, y ha sido el Director General de Vodafone Enabler España S.L. ("Vodafone Enabler") desde Julio de 2011 hasta Diciembre de 2016. Además de su rol en Vodafone Enabler, durante su más de una década en Vodafone, Jiménez-Tuñón ha desempeñado varios cargos de liderazgo en Vodafone España, donde fue pieza clave del lanzamiento y desarrollo de negocio de Operadores Móviles Virtuales (OMVs) del Grupo, y de los negocios de Plataformas de Enabling, Roaming mayorista, Carriers interacionales y Banda ancha fija mayorista. "No hay duda de que Luis es un reconocido y exitoso líder de esta industria que aporta un conocimiento diferencial, y una experiencia y red de contactos global que contribuirá enormemente a los planes de crecimiento de nuestra compañía. Nos sentimos especialmente orgullosos de que Luis, que ha trabajado con nuestra plataforma en Vodafone, uno de nuestros socios más valiosos, haya accedido a unirse a nosotros y nos ayude a construir lo que será una de las compañías de servicios móviles y mensajería más exitosas del mundo", dijo Hal Turner, Presidente Ejecutivo de Pareteum. "Estoy ilusionado de unirme al Consejo de Administración de Pareteum, tras haber sido testigo en primera persona del potencial de disrupción y de transformación digital que la tecnología de la Compañía puede tener en la industria de las comunicaciones móviles y los servicios en la nube, siendo una parte esencial en el éxito de MVNOs como Lebara o Lowi, el operador low-cost digital de Vodafone, que continúan ganado clientes. Estoy deseando ayudar a Pareteum a capitalizar el excelente 'momentum' alrededor de su plataforma de movilidad para la nube, aplicaciones avanzadas de mensajería y seguridad, y su contribución al desarrollo del "Internet de las Cosas", y tengo absoluta confianza en que Hal y todo su equipo están construyendo una compañía que está posicionada para materializar todo su enorme potencial de crecimiento", añadió Jiménez-Tuñón. Jiménez-Tuñón es actualmente Consejero Delegado y fundador de Red Queen Ventures S.L. (www.redqueen-ventures.com) una compañía global de inversión y consultoría estratégica y de gestión empresarial enfocada en sectores con alto componente tecnológico, y en las áreas de telecomunicaciones, transformación digital OMVs, Enablers, satélite y aeroespacial. Como Director de Vodafone Enabler, lideró el innovador modelo de negocio de esta compañía y al lanzamiento operativo de Lowi, que fue galardonado como mejor MVNO en España en 2015 y 2016. Desde 2011, y bajo su liderazgo, Vodafone Enabler disparó sus ingresos y rendimiento operativo, e internacionalizó sus servicios a otros países y a escala global. Previamente, Jiménez-Tuñón desempeño varios cargos ejecutivos en Vodafone España, incluyendo el de Vicepresidente Senior y jefe de los negocios mayoristas, donde desarrolló y gestionó cifras de negocio y beneficio de varios cientos de millones de euros anuales. Luis comenzó su carrera en la industria de las comunicaciones por satélite en 2002, como ingeniero de investigación en el Instituto Espacial Nacional de Dinamarca, y desempeñando varios cargos hasta convertirse en Director Comercial Adjunto de INSA (hoy, ISDEFE), la compañía líder por número de empleados del sector aeroespacial español a cargo de las estaciones de seguimiento satelital de la NASA y de la ESA. Luis ha recibido varios premios profesionales y académicos a nivel internacional y nacional. Obtuvo un Executive MBA de EOI Business School, un Master de posgrado en comunicaciones satelitales por la Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, y es Ingeniero Superior de Telecomunicaciones por la Universidad de Zaragoza y en colaboración con la Universidad Técnica de Dinamarca (DTU). Luis también ha completado el Programa de Dirección General (SEP) de la Escuela de negocios de la Universidad de Stanford, en Palo Alto, California (EEUU), de la que es Alumni vitalicio. Junto a su carrera ejecutiva, Luis ha dado charlas en conferencias internacionales y cuenta con varios artículos en publicaciones internacionales. Sobre Pareteum Corporation: Pareteum Corporation y sus subsidiarias proporcionan un Plataforma completa de servicios de movilidad en la nube (Mobile Cloud), utilizando tecnologías de mensajería y seguridad avanzadas, para mercados globales de comunicaciones Móviles, OMVs, empresas e IoT (Internet of Things) . Entre sus clientes Operadores de Red (MNOs) destacan Vodafone, el segundo operador móvil mundial por número de clientes; Zain, el cuarto mayor operador móvil del mundo en términos de presencia geográfica; y otros operadores Tier-1; Pareteum también da servicio a MVNOs como Lebara y Lowi, y cuenta con partners como Cleartech y Expeto. Para más información, por favor visite www.pareteum.com
News Article | November 14, 2016
« En parallèle, nous confirmons nos efforts sur la formation, avec l'ouverture depuis septembre d'un nouveau Mastère Spécialisé « Chef de projet Décommissionnement et Réhabilitation Environnementale » en partenariat VALGO - INSA de Rouen » indique François Bouché. « Face à la variété des compétences techniques nécessaires à nos métiers, ce mastère a pour but de rendre nos collaborateurs plus rapidement opérationnels. Dans le cadre de notre développement dans les pays émergents comme le Brésil ou la Chine, il est même indispensable, car ces pays connaissent encore un déficit en formation supérieure ». Créée en 2004 à Toulouse, VALGO est une entreprise spécialisée dans la dépollution des sols et des nappes phréatiques, la transformation des déchets en énergie, et les opérations de désamiantage. Expert de la réhabilitation de sites pollués, avec plus d'un millier d'opérations de dépollution à son actif, VALGO développe une importante activité de R&D, et se positionne également comme expert des innovations techniques et scientifiques au service des projets de dépollution. Aujourd'hui basée à Paris, VALGO compte environ 230 collaborateurs, répartis sur 13 agences (10 en France métropolitaine, 1 à la Réunion, 1 au Brésil, 1 en Italie) et a réalisé un chiffre d'affaires de 41 millions d'euros en 2015. VALGO a pour ambition de devenir un leader mondial dans la remédiation des sites et sols pollués, et dans la transformation des déchets organiques en énergie. La reconversion industrielle du site a débuté fin 2014 avec des opérations de déconstruction, de dépollution et de mise en sécurité. A ce jour, plus de 14 000 tonnes de produits pétroliers ont été traitées et plus de 16 000 tonnes de métaux ont pu être revalorisées. Ces travaux, dont le coût jusqu'à présent est de 30 millions d'euros, s'étaleront encore sur 4 ans.
News Article | February 1, 2016
Nafkot Nega thinks journalists are terrorists. When I visited him and his mother, Serkalem Fassil, at their tiny apartment in the outskirts of Washington, DC, in early January, 9-year-old Nafkot intermittently murmured and jabbed his hands, pretending to be a superhero fighting criminals. Perhaps some of those criminals were journalists like his father, Eskinder Nega, who was convicted of violating Ethiopia’s anti-terror law in July 2012. Eskinder is currently serving an 18-year prison sentence. “Journalism is a crime or a terrorist act in his mind because what has been portrayed about [his dad],” Serkalem explained to me through a translator. “Not only his dad, but if you mention any journalist he will scream and say ‘I don't like journalists!’” Their story is a weaving tale that mirrors how Ethiopia, home to over 90 million people, became a digital hermit nation. How Nafkot come to believe journalism is a crime equivalent to terrorism is a case study of how governments have used the internet as a tool for repression. The only way to access the internet in Ethiopia is through the government-owned provider, Ethio Telecom, which has unilateral control over the telecom industry. A burgeoning tech scene in neighboring Kenya, which has an internet penetration rate of 69.6 percent, has garnered the name “Silicon Savannah.” But in Ethiopia, the monopoly on internet access has created one of the most disconnected countries in the world. Only 3.7 percent of Ethiopians have access to the internet, according to the latest data, one of the lowest penetration rates in the world. By comparison, South Sudan, which lacks most basic government services, has an internet penetration rate of 15.9 percent. There are only ten countries with lower internet penetration than Ethiopia. Most of them, such as Somalia and North Korea, are hampered by decades-long civil wars or largely sealed off from outside world. As one of the fastest growing economies in Africa, with one of the most storied cultures in the world, Ethiopia’s lack of internet access is astounding. It’s also troubling. It’s unclear exactly how many Ethiopians can access the internet. Those who can, however, must contend with the specter of state surveillance. The Ethiopian government is suspected of deploying spyware and other hacking and surveillance tools to surveil individuals, including at least one American citizen, hooked to the web. Because of these alleged cybersleuthing efforts, the Ethiopian government has turned an engine of commerce and information into an afterthought and an instrument of surveillance. Former American diplomats, current members of Ethiopia’s intelligence agency, and foreign policy experts all told me that the Ethiopian government is afraid of dissident views spreading online, and has crafted its intelligence service, telecom sector, and legal codes to stamp out digital dissent. Perhaps the foremost victim of the country’s internet crusade is young Nafkot, who believes his father is a terrorist because he’s a journalist. Nafkot’s parents were two of the most well-known journalists in Ethiopia; Eskinder and Serkalem were internationally award winning media moguls, who began their respective careers after the communist Derg regime fell in 1987, and a new government formed in 1991. After a disputed parliamentary election where ensuing protests turned violent in 2005, both Eskindir and Serkalem were arrested. Unbeknownst to either of them, Serkalem was pregnant. The prohibitive factors that cause Ethiopia’s digital divide are straightforward. The monopoly on internet access has made it prohibitively expensive for many citizens to get online. Routine service outages make connections unreliable. And for those Ethiopians who do manage to access the internet, there is little content available in the local language of Amharic. Whether these barriers to internet access are the intended result of a system designed to limit the spread of information, or the unintentional byproduct of a monopolistic cash cow is about as murky as the country’s dealings in cyber-espionage. “Ethiopia wants to maintain as much control as possible over the internet so that it can prevent internal comments that are critical of government policies and minimize access to critical comments originating outside Ethiopia,” David Shinn, the former American ambassador to Ethiopia, told me. A member of the Information Network Security Agency, one of Ethiopia’s intelligence agencies, also told me the monopoly purposefully limited internet access to preserve security in the country. “It’s because of security reasons, and I don’t think there is anything related to that other than this,” said the official, who works on technical capabilities and spoke on the condition on anonymity because he did not want to talk about his employer. “Everything connected to the internet is slowing down. Entrepreneurs can’t create their companies.” Ethiopia is among a constellation of African nations made of patchworks of ethnic identity, and Bronwyn Bruton, the Deputy Director of the Africa Center at the Atlantic Council, told me that the government has led the fractured country by limiting freedom of expression. “The Ethiopian state is very fragile,” Bruton said. “It’s built on a premise of segregation that is in theory separate but equal, however in practice dominated by one ethnic group, the Tigray. The Tigreans are only about six percent of the population but they absolutely dominate political and economic power.” When I asked Teressa Belete, the Chief Enterprise Officer at Ethio Telecom, if the lack of internet access was a deliberate result of the government to limit free speech and dissent, he seemed genuinely confused and dismissed the idea. The advantage of a government monopoly, Belete said, is that rural Ethiopians, who make up a majority of the country’s population, wouldn't be serviced by private companies with profit motives. Yet Ethio Telecom, which was founded in 1952, made an estimated $300 million profit per year, as The Economist reported in 2012. And Ethio Telecom used the excess funds to bankroll railway development in the country. “The country lags far behind in terms of liberalization of the [telecommunications] sector,” said Lishan Adam, a consultant who has worked with the World Bank on information and communications tech policy. “They missed most of the liberalization era in the 1990s, and there was a delay in terms of getting internet.” Adam told me Ethiopia only became connected to the internet in 1997, and said that while the desire to limit free speech might be a factor in the lack of internet access, it wasn’t the main reason why most Ethiopians aren’t online. Ethiopia’s internet penetration rate is reported to be 3.7 percent as of November 2015. Ethiopian officials take issue with that figure, reported by the World Bank. They argue it’s inaccurate because it doesn’t fully account for mobile subscribers. The World Bank’s numbers do include mobile subscribers, but it’s likely the reported number is still too low, and Adam estimated that the true internet penetration rate is between five and 15 percent of the population. Nafkot was born in prison in 2006. He was premature and couldn’t breathe at room temperature. Doctors wanted to move him immediately to a hospital with incubators, but the only hospital that could admit him required a signed form one of his parents. Serkalem was still under anesthesia, and the police wouldn’t bring the form to Eskindir. Nafkot could not get the treatment he needed. “They didn’t really care about his life, but for the grace of God survived,” Serkalem said, her voice rising with anger. Nafkot stayed at his grandparent’s home until Serkalem and Eskinder were released from prison. At which point, Serkalem and Eskinder could not continue working as print journalists; along with most of the independent newspapers in the country, theirs were shut down. Serkalem stopped writing altogether. Eskinder began blogging online, one of the first in the country to do so. “He turned to blogging because all of the other avenues were closed,” Serkalem said. “Although he knew that not many had internet access in Ethiopia, it was better than being silent. He knew it wasn't going to do much, but he needed to write.” The internet penetration rate in Ethiopia was 0.2 percent in 2005, and it is believed by internet security experts that the government’s online censorship began in 2006, the year Eskinder started blogging. Opposition websites inside Ethiopia became inaccessible that year, and the government was assumed to be behind the censorship. Before parliamentary elections in 2010, the Ethiopian government introduced a vague anti-terrorism law in an effort to avoid another contested election, Jeffrey Smith, an international human rights expert based in Washington, DC, told me. The law has become a cornerstone of the government's censorship, labeling anyone who “influences government” a “terrorist.” “Ethiopia is an example of a ruling regime that uses the term ‘terrorism’ as a politically expedient term,” Smith said. “The terrorism concerns inside the country are real but they have gone way beyond that, and have systematically abused human rights.” With the Arab Spring protests in late 2010, there was hope the anti-government rallies that began in Tunisia would spread to Ethiopia. Eskinder’s blogging was provocative and confrontational during this time. In one 2011 article he prodded the Ethiopian military to choose the side of the people like the Egyptian military did at the time. “Ordinary citizens took the initiative all over North Africa and the Middle East,” Eskinder wrote in another post, published September 2, 2011. “The results made history. They are powerful precedents for the rest of humanity. While inspiring words, sober analyses and robust debates are indispensable as ever, they will remain exactly no more than mere words unless translated into actions. To Ethiopia this means risking the core of a much cherished collective vision—peaceful transition to democracy.” On September 14, 2011, while Eskinder was picking up Nafkot from school, the Ethiopian intelligence service surrounded Eskinder’s car and arrested him. Serkalem raced to the scene. She found Nafkot crying, but no Eskinder. Serkalem took Nafkot to his grandmother’s house, then went straight to the Maekelawi prison, notorious for practices of torture. She waited for three hours for Eskinder to show up. But he never did. That’s because Eskinder was actually at their house, watching the intelligence service rifle through the family’s belongings. Serkalem recalled that when she returned home the intelligence officers tried to stop her from entering, but she forced herself through to reach Eskinder. Panicked, she yelled out to him. “Calm down, and be courageous!” Eskinder shouted back. Then he was taken away. Afterward, Serkalem went to pick up 5-year-old Nafkot. The boy was clearly traumatized from witnessing his father arrested at school. The next day, Nafkot didn’t want to go back. “No school for me,” he said. The Ethiopian intelligence apparatus is one of the most invasive in the world. Exiled Ethiopian journalists in Nairobi, Kenya, told me of being followed or snooped on by government agents who had no interest in hiding their identity. One Ethiopian businessman joked to me about how he wouldn’t be surprised if he heard a third-party cough while talking with someone over the phone. Felix Horne, the Ethiopia researcher at Human Rights Watch and author of a comprehensive report on the Ethiopian surveillance agency, told me that the government has a nationwide program called “five to one.” It’s an all-seeing system in which five citizens are monitored by one individual. It is like a listening node in a system that spans the entire country with the goal to preserve command over its many ethnic groups. “The Ethiopian government, like many other governments, appears to be using hacking tools to supplement their regular surveillance regime” said Bill Marczak, a research fellow at Citizen Lab. The Ethiopian government's traditional surveillance methods are “effective for someone who is looking inside Ethiopia, but one of the features of Ethiopia is it has a very large diaspora community spread out over many different countries in the world.” Washington, DC, has around a quarter million Ethiopian expatriates, and there is a large presence in Europe, Marczak added. And there is “no way other than hacking, phishing, and targeted attacks to monitor these people.” When Neamin Zeleke received an email in December 2014 claiming to have inside information about a sensitive subject in Ethiopia, his home country, he recognized it as a likely hack. Zeleke was managing director of Ethiopian Satellite Television and Radio (ESAT), one of the largest Ethiopian news outlets, and run by members of the country’s diaspora. Its website and TV service are banned in the country. But Ethiopians can still access the channel and website through satellites and proxy servers. Zeleke told me that ESAT satellite service has been jammed 20 times by the government. The latest jam, he said, happened just a few minutes before he and I met in early January. He forwarded the suspicious email to Marczak of Citizen Lab, who recognized that it carried a low-level bug likely from Hacking Team, a provider of surveillance software to governments across the world. Using software from Hacking Team, an Italian company, and likely the Gamma Group, a European company, the Ethiopian intelligence service has targeted journalists and political opponents with invasive systems that allow the government to remotely activate a computer camera and microphone, record keystrokes, and monitor online activity. The frequency of these attacks and other surveillance capability is obscured by the inherent secrecy of spycraft, and that the targets of these hacks either don’t know, or don’t want to share that they’ve been infiltrated makes it difficult to assess the tools and motivations of their hacking, Marczak told me. Zeleke is both a journalist and a political opponent. He is a member of Ginbot 7, an armed opposition group in Ethiopia that is labeled a terrorist organization by the government. Security experts told me that there is no evidence Ginbot 7 has ever undertaken terrorist activity, and the organization is not on the US State Department’s list of terror organizations. Ginbot 7 is largely a collection of exiled Ethiopians who operate outside the borders of the country they wish to change. According to an ESAT report, Ginbot 7 has attacked government soldiers, which Zeleke confirmed to me. Zeleke stepped down as managing director of ESAT in early 2016. He didn’t have the time for it anymore, and told me he was worried he could no longer be objective. He is now a consultant for the organization, though he still holds a corner office in the station’s tiny studio, which is lined with awards from prestigious human rights organizations. One of the awards was for Eskinder Nega. Zeleke told me ESAT took the award on behalf of Eskinder, who “was considered one of the pioneers of independent media in Ethiopia.” In the ESAT news bullpen, and also next to Eskinder’s award in Zekele’s office, was a large portrait of Andargachew Tsige, the founder of Ginbot 7, in military fatigues. Tsige is believed to be under arrest in Ethiopia. Zeleke lept toward me when I tried to take a photo of the portrait next to Eskinder’s award. “I don’t think that’s appropriate for this story,” Naimin said, moving Tsige’s photo out of the shot. Later, I asked Zeleke if he thought the Ethiopian government was targeting him and other ESAT journalists because of their dissident views, or because the government perceives the organization as affiliated with Ginbot 7. What if authorities didn’t know where Zeleke’s political activity ends, and his journalism begins? It wouldn’t justify the surveillance. But because there have been so few public cases of the Ethiopian government’s targets, the distinction could illuminate the motivations of the intelligence service’s hacking—primarily to stop the flow of information, or targeting perceived political threats. The head of the government agency that runs Ethiopia’s hacking, the INSA, declined to comment for this story. Zeleke told me that the Ethiopian government is monitoring ESAT because it is a political organization affiliated with Ginbot 7, but it is a fully independent organization and the journalists are from across the political spectrum. “The fact that I am affiliated with Ginbot 7 may be a factor, but without me being here, whoever is the head of ESAT, these journalists [would be attacked],” he told me. “Others, many others who are not Ginbot 7, thousands of others, are subject to cyberattacks and surveillance. So, I mean, logically you have to see the context. This is a routine practice by the police, an authoritarian state to control the populous, to control the flow of information, and to intimidate alternative media and political dissenters.” Serkalem and Nafkot would visit Eskinder in prison every Saturday and Sunday after he was sentenced. Eskinder tried to convince Nafkot that he was just in school, not at prison, to make the burden of an absent father easier on his young son. Born in a prison, Nafkot recognized that his father wasn’t in school. “No, you’re in jail,” he would say to his dad. Nafkot Nega believes that the profession of his parents is a crime equivalent to terrorism. Innovative industries in Ethiopia have been hamstrung to preserve this philosophy, and those who do access the internet are targets of relentless hacking. When they visited, Serkalem told me the jail staff would humiliate inmates in front of their families. Eskinder grew concerned that Nafkot would become desensitized to the brutality and grow resentful of the world. “It’s OK to be jailed for what you believe in, but to see the impact on your family and your son, he couldn't bear, and asked me to take him away,” Serkalem told me. The real punishment wasn’t his time wasted behind bars. It was seeing Nafkot suffer without a father. Eskinder started to ask his wife and son the same question each time they visited: “Have you bought your ticket?” He also pressed other family members and friends who visited to convince Serkalem and Nafkot to leave Ethiopia, so he could finish his time with the peace of mind that his family would be safe. The last time Nafkot saw his father was July 23, 2014. Serkalem had purchased two tickets for the United States the next day, and Eskinder tried to cheer up his son during their last visit. “America is right nearby!” he exclaimed. Serkalem told me she wants to create a positive memory for Nafkot of his father. She wants to convince her son that his father’s sacrifice as not in vain. Eskinder is scheduled to be released from prison in 2030, when Nafkot will be 23 years old—the same age Eskinder opened his first newspaper in Ethiopia.
News Article | February 22, 2017
Jimenez-Tuñon Brings Over 15 Years of Senior Telecom Industry Leadership and Operational Expertise with a Focus on Supporting the Acceleration of Pareteum Global Sales Program NEW YORK, Feb. 22, 2017 /PRNewswire/ -- Pareteum Corporation (NYSE MKT: TEUM) ("Pareteum" or the "Company"), a leading international provider of mobile networking software and services, today announced that its Nomination Committee has appointed Mr. Luis Jimenez-Tuñon to the Board of Directors effective March, 1, 2017. Mr. Jimenez-Tuñon is a distinguished mobile telecommunications industry leader, having served as CEO of Pareteum's largest customer, Vodafone Enabler Spain S.L. ("Vodafone Enabler") from July 2011 to December 2016. In addition to his role at Vodafone Enabler, during a decade at Vodafone, Mr. Jimenez-Tuñon has also held leadership positions at Vodafone Spain where he was responsible for business development and strategy of the group's Mobile Virtual Network Operators (MVNOs), enablers, roaming services, international carriers and wholesale fixed broadband business lines. "There can be no doubt that Luis is an accomplished industry leader and executive who brings with him invaluable insights, expertise and a global network of relationships that will contribute greatly to our corporate growth plans. We are especially honored that Luis, an early advocate of our platform business and over the past 5 years, one of our most valued partners within Vodafone, has agreed to join us and help build what we believe will be one of the preeminent mobile services and messaging companies in the world," said Hal Turner, Executive Chairman of Pareteum. "I am excited to be joining Pareteum Board of Directors, having witnessed first-hand the disruptive and transformational impact the Company's technology can have on mobile communications as evidenced by its central role in enabling multiple MNVOs such as Lebara and the launch of Lowi, Vodafone's digital low-cost mobile brand, which continues to earn industry accolades. I look forward to helping the team capitalize on the momentum building behind the Company's mobility cloud platform and its support for the Internet of Things and advanced messaging applications and I have confidence that Hal and his team are building a company that is well positioned to capitalize on the vast potential ahead of it," added Mr. Jimenez-Tuñon. Mr. Jimenez-Tuñon is currently founder and CEO of Red Queen Ventures, S.L. (www.redqueen-ventures.com) a global high-tech advisory and Investment Company focused on technology, telecom, MVNO/E, satellite and aerospace. As Chief Executive of Vodafone Enabler, he pioneered the Company's innovative business model and powered the launch of Vodafone Spain's second brand Lowi.es which was awarded best Spanish MVNO in 2015 and 2016. Started in 2011, under his leadership, Vodafone enabler boosted its revenue, profit and operational performance, and achieved internationalization. Previously, Luis held several executive positions at Vodafone Spain, including Senior Vice President where he grew business to hundreds of millions of euros in yearly revenue. Luis began his career in the satellite industry in 2002 holding various positions including Research engineer at the National Space Institute of Denmark and later Deputy Commercial Director of INSA (today ISDEFE), Spain's leading satellite operations company managing NASA and ESA tracking stations. Luis has received several professional and academic awards at international and national levels. Luis earned an Executive MBA from EOI Business School, a Master's Degree in Satellite Communications from Polytechnic University of Madrid, and an MSc in Telecommunications Engineering from the University of Zaragoza in cooperation with the Technical University of Denmark. He also completed the Executive Management Program (SEP) from the Graduate School of business at Stanford University in California, of which he is lifetime alumni. Along with his executive career, Luis has been guest speaker at international business summits and has published several papers. About Pareteum Corporation: Pareteum Corporation and its subsidiaries provide a complete mobility cloud platform, utilizing messaging and security capabilities for the global Mobile, MVNO, Enterprise, Saas and IoT markets. Mobile Network Operator (MNO) customers include Vodafone, the world's second largest mobile operator by customer count, Zain, the 4th largest mobile operator in the world in terms of geographical presence and other Tier 1 operators, MVNO customers such as Lebara and Lowi, and partners including Cleartech and Expeto. For more information please visit: www.pareteum.com. Forward-Looking Statements: Certain statements contained herein constitute "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Such statements may include, without limitation, statements with respect to Pareteum's plans and objectives, projections, expectations and intentions. These forward-looking statements are based on current expectations, estimates and projections about Pareteum's industry, management's beliefs and certain assumptions made by management. Readers are cautioned that any such forward-looking statements are not guarantees of future performance and are subject to certain risks, uncertainties and assumptions that are difficult to predict. Because such statements involve risks and uncertainties, the actual results and performance of Pareteum may differ materially from the results expressed or implied by such forward-looking statements. Given these uncertainties, readers are cautioned not to place undue reliance on such forward-looking statements. Unless otherwise required by law, Pareteum also disclaims any obligation to update its view of any such risks or uncertainties or to announce publicly the result of any revisions to the forward-looking statements made here. Additional information concerning certain risks and uncertainties that could cause actual results to differ materially from those projected or suggested in Pareteum's filings with the Securities and Exchange Commission, copies of which are available from the SEC or may be obtained upon request from Pareteum Corporation.