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News Article | April 17, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Professor Federico Rosei, Director of the INRS Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, is the recipient of the 2017 Outstanding Engineer Award from IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) Canada. The award recognizes outstanding Canadian engineers who have made important contributions to electrical and electronics engineering. This is not the first time Dr. Rosei's remarkable contributions to engineering in Canada have been highlighted. His election as a fellow of the Engineering Institute of Canada in 2013 and of the Canadian Academy of Engineering in 2015 attest to his status among Canada's engineering elite. Dr. Rosei holds the UNESCO Chair in Materials and Technologies for Energy Conversion, Saving and Storage (MATECSS) and the newly established Canada Research Chair in Nanostructured Materials. His ever-growing national and international reputation is reflected in the numerous awards and honours he has received in recent years from around the world. Dr. Rosei will receive a medal and plaque at the IEEE Canada awards ceremony, part of the Annual IEEE Canadian Conference on Electrical and Computer Engineering next May 1, 2017, in Windsor, Ontario. The theme of the conference is "Two Great Nations Innovate the Technology." Our heartfelt congratulations to Professor Rosei on this new honour!


News Article | November 28, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Honorary Professor Jean-Pol Dodelet, of Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications has been elected a Fellow of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He was the only researcher at a Québec university to receive this prestigious distinction in 2016. The fellowship recognizes his outstanding contribution to the development of a new generation of molecular fuel cell catalysts. Professor Dodelet will receive this honour at the induction ceremony for new Fellows on February 18, 2017, at the AAAS Annual Meeting in Boston. Professor Dodelet and his team have invented a new generation of platinum-free catalysts that make it possible to manufacture highly efficient, low-cost hydrogen fuel cells. In addition to developing very active catalysts using iron instead of platinum (2009 article in Science and first patent), Professor Dodelet's team also boosted the catalysts' initial performance in fuel cells (2011 article in Nature Communications and second patent). This breakthrough offers real potential not only for powering battery and fuel cell hybrid vehicles of the future, but also for supplying energy for lighting and heating homes. Professor Dodelet, an honorary professor since 2015, continues his work on developing non-noble metal catalysts with his colleagues at INRS and around the world to ensure that they are durable enough for commercial applications. Congratulations to Professor Dodelet for this well-deserved distinction! Founded in 1848, the AAAS is the biggest scientific society in the world and one of the oldest federations in the field. It is made up of nearly 250 affiliated organizations and science academies, reaching 10 million people. It publishes a number of scientific journals, including Science. Through its programs and activities, the AAAS aims to make science and technology more accessible for all. Institut national de recherche scientifique (INRS) is a graduate-level research and training university and ranks first in Canada for research intensity (average funding per professor). INRS brings together some 150 professors and close to 700 students and postdoctoral fellows at its four centres in Montreal, Quebec City, Laval, and Varennes. Its basic research is essential to the advancement of science in Quebec and internationally, and its research teams play a key role in the development of concrete solutions to the problems faced by our society.


News Article | October 27, 2016
Site: www.gizmag.com

They might not be as fashionable among the hipster set as kale but cranberries' health properties are undisputed. Long known as a remedy for urinary tract infections, they have in recent years also been shown to benefit our gut, heart, immune system and brain. And now, a new study has revealed that these berries might just be able to succeed where conventional antibiotics are struggling: stopping bacterial infections from spreading by disrupting the pathogens' communication networks. Current antibiotics treat infections by killing the bacteria, which results in increased selective pressure to develop resistance. Put another way: If something was trying to kill you, wouldn't you find a way to protect yourself too? This has led to one of the biggest public health threats today – growing bacterial resistance to antibiotics. Indeed some bacterial infections have developed resistance to multiple drugs, making it increasingly difficult to find an effective treatment. An example would be those caused by the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a common strain that attacks compromised body tissues. It is usually found in hospitalized patients and those with a compromised immune system. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in the United States, more than 6,000 (13 percent) of the 51,000 healthcare-associated P. aeruginosa infections that occur each year are multi-drug resistant. And every year, they claim the lives of some 400 patients. This state of affairs has given rise to the need for alternative antibiotic treatments that inhibit bacterial growth without killing them and causing an increase in selective pressure. One such method lies in inhibiting quorum sensing (QS), or to put it simply, the bacterial cells' ability to communicate with one another. When bacteria enter a body, they 'talk' to each other using signaling molecules that enable them to co-ordinate their behavior to adapt to environmental changes, evade the host's immune response and establish a successful infection. It follows then, that disrupting their communication networks should stall their growth. In Canada, scientists from McGill University and INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier are working on one such solution using a cranberry extract rich in compounds known as proanthocyanidins (cerPAC). While previous research has shown how they have prevented bacteria from sticking to the walls of the urinary tract as well as impaired the mobility of certain pathogens, the scientists wanted to find out how effective they would be managing bacterial infections as QS inhibitors. Tests were conducted on fruit flies, which were infected with a P. aeruginosa strain and fed the cranberry extract. The results were promising: Not only did the flies that were fed the cranberry extract survive the bacterial onslaught, scientists also found that the cerPAC compound was successful in disrupting two QS molecules in the P. aeruginosa bacterial cells, 3-oxo-C12-HSL and C4-HSL. "Cranberry PACs interrupt the ability for bacteria to communicate with each other, spread and become virulent," said study author Dr. Eric Déziel of INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier. "The cranberry extract successfully interferes with the chain of events associated with the spread and severity of chronic bacterial infections." More importantly, they did so without killing the bacterial cells, which means the method might avoid the cycle that leads to antibiotic resistance. While further tests are needed to ensure that the extract doesn't elicit a toxic response in humans at the concentrations used, the results so far suggest that there is potential for cerPAC to be used in the treatment of acute and chronic infections caused by P. aeruginosa and other bacterial pathogens.


Home > Press > Researchers create a first frequency comb of time-bin entangled qubits: Discovery is a significant step toward multi-channel quantum communication and higher capacity quantum computers Abstract: Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. Now an international team of researchers has built a chip that generates multiple frequencies from a robust quantum system that produces time-bin entangled photons. In contrast to other quantum state realizations, entangled photons don't need bulky equipment to keep them in their quantum state, and they can transmit quantum information across long distances. The new device creates entangled photons that span the traditional telecommunications spectrum, making it appealing for multi-channel quantum communication and more powerful quantum computers. "The advantages of our chip are that it's compact and cheap. It's also unique that it operates on multiple channels," said Michael Kues, Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique (INRS), University of Quebec, Canada. The researchers will present their results at the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO), which is held June 5 -10 in San Jose, California. The basis of quantum communications and computing lies in qubits, the quantum equivalent of classical bits. Instead of representing a one or a zero, qubits can exhibit an unusual property called superposition to represent both numbers simultaneously. In order to take full advantage of superposition to perform difficult calculations or send information securely, another weird quantum mechanical property called entanglement enters the picture. Entanglement was famously called "spooky action at a distance" by Albert Einstein. It links particles so that measurements on one instantaneously affect the other. Kues and his colleagues used photons to realize their qubits and entangled them by sending two short laser pulses through an interferometer, a device that directs light beams along different paths and then recombines them, to generate double pulses. To generate multiple frequencies, Kres and his colleagues sent the pulses through a tiny ring, called a microring resonator. The resonator generates photon pairs on a series of discrete frequencies, using spontaneous form-wave mixing, thus creating a frequency comb. The interferometer the team used has one long arm and one short arm, and when a single photon comes out of the system, it is in a superposition of time states, as if it traveled through both the long arm and the short arm simultaneously. Time-bin entanglement is a particularly robust form of photon entanglement. Photons can also have their polarization entangled, but waveguides and other types of optical equipment may alter polarization states. Other research groups have generated time-bin entangled photons, but Kues and his colleagues are the first to create photons with multiple frequencies using the same chip. This feature can enable multiplexed and multi-channel quantum communications and increased quantum computation information capacity. Kues notes that the chip could improve quantum key distribution, a process that lets two parties share a secret key to encrypt messages with theoretically unbreakable security. It could also serve as a component of a future quantum computer. "In the future you may have a computer with both quantum and classical capabilities. The quantum part would only be used to solve specific problems that are difficult for classical computers," said Roberto Morandotti, a physicist at INRS and leader of the group that developed the chip. Before quantum computers reach a desktop near you, they need to be scaled down, in terms of size, and scaled up, in terms of computing power. Morandotti, Kues and colleagues think their chip is a step in the right direction. The team is currently working to integrate the lasers, interferometer, and microring resonator of the device into a standard photonic chip, to build logic gates for quantum state manipulation, and to increase the degree of entanglement, which is a measure of the strength of the link between particles. ### About the Presentation The presentation, "Integrated Quantum Frequency Comb Source of Entangled Qubits," by Christian Reimer, Michael Kues, Piotr Roztocki, Benjamin Wetzel, Yaron Bromberg, Fabio Grazioso, Brent E. Little, Sai T. Chu, David J. Moss, Lucia Caspani and Roberto Morandotti will take place from 17:00 - 17:15 on Thursday, June 9, 2016 in the Executive Ballroom 210A of the San Jose Convention Center, San Jose, California, USA. Media Registration: A media room for credentialed press and analysts will be located on-site in the San Jose Convention Center, 5-10 June 2016. Media interested in attending the event should register on the CLEO website media center: Media Center. About CLEO With a distinguished history as the industry's leading event on laser science, the Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO) is the premier international forum for scientific and technical optics, uniting the fields of lasers and opto-electronics by bringing together all aspects of laser technology, from basic research to industry applications. CLEO: Expo showcases the latest products and applications from more than 300 participating companies from around the world, providing hands-on demonstrations of the latest market innovations and applications. The Expo also offers valuable on-floor programming, including Market Focus and the Technology Transfer program. Managed by The Optical Society (OSA) and sponsored by the American Physical Society's (APS) Laser Science Division, IEEE Photonics Society and OSA, CLEO provides the full range of critical developments in the field, showcasing the most significant milestones from laboratory to marketplace. With an unparalleled breadth and depth of coverage, CLEO connects all of the critical vertical markets in lasers and electro-optics. For more information, visit the event website at www.cleoconference.org. CLEO 2016 takes place 5 - 10 June 2016 at the San Jose Convention Center, San Jose, California, USA. Follow developments and updates on CLEO 2016 on Twitter @CLEOConf, #CLEO16. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | November 16, 2016
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Professor Federico Rosei, who is also the director of the INRS Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications Research Center, has been elected a member of the World Academy of Art and Science for his outstanding contribution to scientific research and technological innovation in the synthesis and characterization of multifunctional materials and their integration in devices. He is the first INRS professor to join this prestigious academy, which includes numerous Nobel laureates and only about twenty Canadians. Professor Rosei is actively involved in partnerships with emerging countries, notably in the framework of the UNESCO Chair in Materials and Technology for Energy Conversion, Saving, and Storage which he established at INRS in 2014. The work carried out by his team has resulted in major scientific breakthroughs leading to the development of innovative applications in a variety of sectors: green energy, electronics, and life sciences, and has opened the door to a new generation of solar cells. Laureate of the Canadian Society for Chemistry's 2016 John C. Polanyi Award, Professor Rosei has achieved ample international peer recognition, as shown by the many awards and distinctions he has earned in recent years, from Australia, China, Iran, Japan, the United States, and Europe. The World Academy of Art and Science is an international organization founded in 1960. It brings together more than 700 members from various cultures, nationalities, and intellectual disciplines, chosen for their distinction in the arts or natural, social, and human sciences. The Academy seeks to contribute to the progress of global civilization, the welfare of populations, the sustainable development of the planet, and the enhancement of world order and peace. These issues are related to the social consequences and policy implications of knowledge, which are the main focus of the discussions held by this think tank that promotes the ethical application of scientific discoveries.


News Article | January 6, 2016
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Home > Press > Promising new approach for controlled fabrication of carbon nanostructures Abstract: An international team of researchers including Professor Federico Rosei and members of his group at INRS has developed a new strategy for fabricating atomically controlled carbon nanostructures used in molecular carbon-based electronics. An article just published in the prestigious journal Nature Communications presents their findings: the complete electronic structure of a conjugated organic polymer, and the influence of the substrate on its electronic properties. The researchers combined two procedures previously developed in Professor Rosei's lab--molecular self-assembly and chain polymerization--to produce a network of long-range poly(para-phenylene) (PPP) nanowires on a copper (Cu) surface. Using advanced technologies such as scanning tunneling microscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy as well as theoretical models, they were able to describe the morphology and electronic structure of these nanostructures. "We provide a complete description of the band structure and also highlight the strong interaction between the polymer and the substrate, which explains both the decreased bandgap and the metallic nature of the new chains. Even with this hybridization, the PPP bands display a quasi one-dimensional dispersion in conductive polymeric nanowires," said Professor Federico Rosei, one of the authors of the study. Although further research is needed to fully describe the electronic properties of these nanostructures, the polymer's dispersion provides a spectroscopic record of the polymerization process of certain types of molecules on gold, silver, copper, and other surfaces. It's a promising approach for similar semiconductor studies--an essential step in the development of actual devices. The results of the study could be used in designing organic nanostructures, with significant potential applications in nanoelectronics, including photovoltaic devices, field-effect transistors, light-emitting diodes, and sensors. About INRS Institut national de recherche scientifique (INRS) is a graduate-level research and training university and ranks first in Canada for research intensity (average funding per professor). INRS brings together some 150 professors and close to 700 students and postdoctoral fellows at its four centres in Montreal, Quebec City, Laval, and Varennes. Its basic research is essential to the advancement of science in Quebec and internationally, and its research teams play a key role in the development of concrete solutions to the problems faced by our society. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


News Article | February 28, 2017
Site: www.eurekalert.org

Implementation of a new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy platform will provide professors Nicolas Doucet and Steven LaPlante of Centre INRS-Institut Armand-Frappier with a powerful new tool for conducting an ambitious research program aimed at identifying new therapeutic molecules. This new platform, funded in part by the Canadian Foundation for Innovation's John R. Evans Leaders Fund and the Government of Quebec, will enable the two researchers to explore the role of atomic-scale molecular motions in protein and enzyme families involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), diabetes, asthma, HIV, auto-immune disease, and cancer. Pooling their parallel expertise in protein NMR and drug discovery, professors Doucet and LaPlante will have access to a 600 megahertz NMR spectrometer with high throughput screening capabilities to characterize biomolecular interactions between proteins and their ligands. The knowledge gained will be crucial to fragment-based drug discovery (FBDD), a new pharmaceutical approach aimed at developing targeted and more effective drugs that cause fewer side effects. This new research capability has the potential to revolutionize drug development practices and to provide new impetus to the pharmaceutical industry in Quebec and across Canada. It will also offer a unique training environment for highly skilled biotechnology personnel. Institut national de recherche scientifique (INRS) is a graduate-level research and training university and ranks first in Canada for research intensity (average funding per professor). INRS brings together some 150 professors and close to 700 students and postdoctoral fellows at its four centres in Montreal, Quebec City, Laval, and Varennes. Its basic research is essential to the advancement of science in Quebec and internationally, and its research teams play a key role in the development of concrete solutions to the problems faced by our society.


News Article | March 13, 2016
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Abstract: The optical chip developed at INRS by Prof. Roberto Morandotti's team overcomes a number of obstacles in the development of quantum computers, which are expected to revolutionize information processing. The international research team has demonstrated that on-chip quantum frequency combs can be used to simultaneously generate multiphoton entangled quantum bit (qubit) states. Quantum computing differs fundamentally from classical computing, in that it is based on the generation and processing of qubits. Unlike classical bits, which can have a state of either 1 or 0, qubits allow a superposition of the 1 and 0 states (both simultaneously). Strikingly, multiple qubits can be linked in so-called 'entangled' states, where the manipulation of a single qubit changes the entire system, even if individual qubits are physically distant. This property is the basis for quantum information processing, aiming towards building superfast quantum computers and transferring information in a completely secure way. Professor Morandotti has focused his research efforts on the realization of quantum components compatible with established technologies. The chip developed by his team was designed to meet numerous criteria for its direct use: it is compact, inexpensive to make, compatible with electronic circuits, and uses standard telecommunication frequencies. It is also scalable, an essential characteristic if it is to serve as a basis for practical systems. But the biggest technological challenge is the generation of multiple, stable, and controllable entangled qubit states. The generation of qubits can rely on several different approaches, including electron spins, atomic energy levels, and photon quantum states. Photons have the advantage of preserving entanglement over long distances and time periods. But generating entangled photon states in a compact and scalable way is difficult. "What is most important, several such states have to be generated simultaneously if we are to arrive at practical applications," added INRS research associate Dr. Michael Kues. Roberto Morandotti's team tackled this challenge by using on-chip optical frequency combs for the first time to generate multiple entangled qubit states of light. As Michael Kues explains, optical frequency combs are light sources comprised of many equally-spaced frequency modes. "Frequency combs are extraordinarily precise sources and have already revolutionized metrology and sensing, as well as earning their discoverers the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics." Thanks to these integrated quantum frequency combs, the chip developed by INRS is able to generate entangled multi-photon qubit states over several hundred frequency modes. It is the first time anyone has demonstrated the simultaneous generation of qubit multi-photon and two-photon entangled states: Until now, integrated systems developed by other research teams had only succeeded in generating individual two-photon entangled states on a chip. The results published in Science will provide a foundation for new research, both in integrated quantum photonics and quantum frequency combs. This could revolutionize optical quantum technologies, while at the same time maintaining compatibility with existing semiconductor chip technology. About INRS Institut national de recherche scientifique (INRS) is a graduate-level research and training university and ranks first in Canada for research intensity (average grant funding per faculty member). INRS brings together some 150 professors and close to 700 students and postdoctoral fellows at its four centres in Montreal, Quebec City, Laval, and Varennes. Its basic research is essential to the advancement of science in Quebec and internationally even as it plays a key role in the development of concrete solutions to the problems faced by our society. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Kaur S.,Banaras Hindu University | Dhillon G.S.,INRS
Critical Reviews in Microbiology | Year: 2014

Among the biopolymers, chitin and its derivative chitosan (CTS) have been receiving increasing attention. Both are composed of randomly distributed β-(1-4)-linked d-glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine units. On commercial scale, CTS is mainly obtained from the crustacean shells. The chemical methods employed for extraction of CTS from crustacean shells are laden with many disadvantages. Waste fungal biomass represents a potential biological source of CTS, in fact with superior physico-chemical properties, such as high degree of deacetylation, low molecular weight, devoid of protein contamination and high bioactivity. Researchers around the globe are attempting to commercialize CTS production and extraction from fungal sources. Fungi are promising and environmentally benign source of CTS and they have the potential to completely replace crustacean-derived CTS. Waste fungal biomass resulting from various pharmaceutical and biotechnological industries is grown on inexpensive agro-industrial wastes and its by-products are a rich and inexpensive source of CTS. CTS is emerging as an important natural polymer having broad range of applications in different fields. In this context, the present review discusses the potential sources of CTS and their advantages and disadvantages. This review also deals with potential applications of CTS in different fields. Finally, the various attributes of CTS sought in different applications are discussed. © 2014 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc. All rights reserved: reproduction in whole or part not permitted.


News Article | March 11, 2016
Site: phys.org

Quantum computing differs fundamentally from classical computing, in that it is based on the generation and processing of qubits. Unlike classical bits, which can have a state of either 1 or 0, qubits allow a superposition of the 1 and 0 states (both simultaneously). Strikingly, multiple qubits can be linked in so-called 'entangled' states, in which the manipulation of a single qubit changes the entire system, even if individual qubits are physically distant. This property is the basis for quantum information processing, with the goal of building superfast quantum computers and transferring information in a completely secure way. Professor Morandotti has focused his research efforts on the realization of quantum components compatible with established technologies. The chip developed by his team was designed to meet numerous criteria for its direct use: It is compact, inexpensive, compatible with electronic circuits, and uses standard telecommunication frequencies. It is also scalable, an essential characteristic if it is to serve as a basis for practical systems. But the biggest technological challenge is the generation of multiple, stable, and controllable entangled qubit states. The generation of qubits can rely on several approaches, including electron spin, atomic energy levels, and photon quantum states. Photons have the advantage of preserving entanglement over long distances and time periods. But generating entangled photon states in a compact and scalable way is difficult. "Most importantly, several such states have to be generated simultaneously if we are to arrive at practical applications," says INRS research associate Dr. Michael Kues. Roberto Morandotti's team tackled this challenge by using on-chip optical frequency combs for the first time to generate multiple entangled qubit states of light. As Michael Kues explains, optical frequency combs are light sources comprising many equally-spaced frequency modes. "Frequency combs are extraordinarily precise sources and have already revolutionized metrology and sensing, as well as earning their discoverers the 2005 Nobel Prize in Physics." Thanks to these integrated quantum frequency combs, the chip developed by INRS is able to generate entangled multi-photon qubit states over several hundred frequency modes. It is the first time anyone has demonstrated the simultaneous generation of qubit multi-photon and two-photon entangled states: Until now, integrated systems developed by other research teams had only succeeded in generating individual two-photon entangled states on a chip. The results published in Science provide a foundation for new research, both in integrated quantum photonics and quantum frequency combs. This could revolutionize optical quantum technologies, while at the same time maintaining compatibility with existing semiconductor chip technology. More information: "Generation of multiphoton entangled quantum states by means of integrated frequency combs" Science, DOI: 10.1126/science.aad8532

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