Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2 | Award Amount: 3.44M | Year: 2009
In the next ten years, traffic by passenger cars is expected to grow by 30% while goods traffic is expected to go up by 60%. During the same time ambitious targets have been formulated in terms of safety, congestion and protection of the environment. To accommodate this, the deployment of Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS), or the use of ICT infrastructure to complement road infrastructure and realise the vision of the connected vehicle, needs to be accelerated. Intelligent Transport Systems use existing communication infrastructure and their future evolutions to deliver a quasi unlimited list of applications and services. These vary from emergency call (eCall) and intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) to vehicle-to-vehicle collision warning and intersection collision avoidance. Together these will have an unprecedented impact on safety, traffic fluidity, security and the environment. When fully deployed, this new ecosystem will also generate tens of thousands of jobs in Europe, many of which will be at SMEs as their flexibility, drive and innovation capability is needed to fill in many of the new roles. Regional and national test beds where companies collaborate on all aspects of the future ITS ecosystem are needed as a key intermediary step to facilitate deployment. SMEs cannot set-up such test beds alone, but associations of SMEs such as the national ITS associations are very well placed to do so or facilitate that it is done. To prepare for these test beds and FOTs, there is a need for top research providers that have been involved in the European research programmes to combine existing components into such a test bed and assess it, before it is made widely available as a starting point to any national ITS association. Doing so at the European level will not only help ensure interoperability, but will also facilitate that developments are rapidly taken-up by all 22 national ITS associations that are today already informally working together within this domain.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: TPT-2007-0.0-03 | Award Amount: 652.20K | Year: 2008
Tourism sector is a key driver of economic growth and employment and has a fundamental role in matching the Lisbon Strategy objectives: making the EU more competitive and dynamic economy.The recent communication A renewed European Union Tourism Policy:Towards a stronger partnership for European Tourism introduces the strategy to be pursued for better exploit growth and employment potentials of the tourism sector in a sustainable way.It also refers how the stakeholders can be involved in the EC actions.CONCERTOUR is an Horizontal Activity(Support Action)aiming at creating synergies between transport research and tourism services in Europe,improving competitiveness,encouraging co-modality,focusing on the subject regardless of the involved DG Programme.The overall objective is to propose new concepts guiding tourists through the stages of whole travel itinerary and to support EU policies in improving tourism competitiveness,considering emerging needs and tourism demand by acting on main aspects affecting tourism market (e.g.intermodality,information,ticketing).In CONCERTOUR tourism market and transport supply are considered as integrated environment,starting from the assumption that the local community is key to successful tourism destination as they are guardians of the local resources and provide the service for paying guests. The project will identify policy driven solutions to remove barriers,creating the conditions for value added transport services provision(e.g.institutions/instruments facilitating co-ordination between governmental departments in the planning phase,tourism travel plans,pricing policies and technical standardisation).The project focuses on transport as lever/opportunity and not as barrier to sustainable development and competitiveness,taking in consideration relevant key factors such as:improvement of socio-economic benefits,sites attractiveness,reduction of adverse environmental/social impacts,guarantee fair/equal access to tourism for all
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA | Phase: ICT-2007.6.1 | Award Amount: 2.11M | Year: 2007
The FESTA Support Action is a vital step in the realisation of scientifically robust and efficiently run Field Operational Tests which aim to evaluate key ICT functions. A consortium of European experts with a wide range of skills has been formed to allow the development of a best-practise handbook which will guide the design and implementation of an FOT. The consortium involves the participation of academic institutes and national research laboratories, vehicle manufacturers and system providers, along with representatives of national road authorities. This allows the dovetailing of scientific integrity and practical considerations. This Support Action will consider the whole lifecycle of an FOT, from the analysis of stakeholders needs, the choice of behavioural and other (performance and individual) indicators, the methods by which they are measured (data acquisition), and analysed, reported and integrated and legal, ethical and procedural considerations. In addition, a whole range of ICT functions will be considered, ranging from vehicle systems (e.g. collision warning systems), cooperative systems (e.g. traffic management systems) and nomadic devices such as driver information systems. Running alongside the standard management functions, will be the development of two key workshops to involve wider participation of stakeholders. They will provide the opportunity to undertake needs analyses and dissemination activities. The potential for exploitation of the results and outputs of the FESTA Support Action are high, given the specific EC call for FOTs in the near future.
Joumard R.,INRETS |
Nicolas J.-P.,Laboratoire dEconomie des Transports
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2010
Faced with a choice of different transport projects, such as road or rail infrastructure projects, which project is the most sustainable? We suggest a relatively simple and transparent evaluation method for such projects. First, transport issues within the sustainable development framework must be addressed, bearing in mind the strong meaning of the term, which is the only concept allowing environmental issues to be taken seriously into account. It also means linking local and global aspects, long and short terms, and thus to specify the time and geographical scales of projects and their impacts. Secondly, we put forward these main principles as evaluation criteria enabling the sustainable development concept to be made operational. We suggest three economic criteria, four social criteria and eleven environmental criteria, in addition to an aggregation method for these criteria integrating the social or political preferences of decision-makers or their representatives. A concern that is often significant in transport projects is the future of traffic mobility, whose main parameters we have analysed in order to put forward probable scenarios, which form the basis for applying the criteria listed above. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kurniawan J.S.,INRETS |
Environmental Impact Assessment Review | Year: 2011
Air transportation growth has increased continuously over the years. The rise in air transport activity has been accompanied by an increase in the amount of energy used to provide air transportation services. It is also assumed to increase environmental impacts, in particular pollutant emissions. Traditionally, the environmental impacts of atmospheric emissions from aircraft have been addressed in two separate ways; aircraft pollutant emissions occurring during the landing and take-off (LTO) phase (local pollutant emissions) which is the focus of this study, and the non-LTO phase (global/regional pollutant emissions). Aircraft pollutant emissions are an important source of pollution and directly or indirectly harmfully affect human health, ecosystems and cultural heritage. There are many methods to asses pollutant emissions used by various countries. However, using different and separate methodology will cause a variation in results, some lack of information and the use of certain methods will require justification and reliability that must be demonstrated and proven. In relation to this issue, this paper presents identification, comparison and reviews of some of the methodologies of aircraft pollutant assessment from the past, present and future expectations of some studies and projects focusing on emissions factors, fuel consumption, and uncertainty. This paper also provides reliable information on the impacts of aircraft pollutant emissions in short term and long term predictions. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Fremont A.,INRETS |
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2010
The dominance of road for hinterland services could be challenged by using rail-road or waterway-road transport because of costs, congestion and growing environmental constraints. A common dynamic that is very favorable to the development of combined transport is shared among the actors of the transport chain but with different starting positions considering the ports of the Northern Range.But combined transport must still demonstrate that it can compete with road transport. Road transport and combined transport are not directly comparable because they do not offer the same physical transport service. The organizational patterns of road and combined transport are investigated. The example of hinterland services to and from the port of Le Havre to the Paris region is a particularly interesting case because of the very short distance. It is shown that the competitiveness of combined transport in terms of price varies greatly according to the way road transport it competes with is organized and that the commercial policy of combined transport operators plays a key role for explaining this competitiveness. Additional services such as additional dwelling times and specific custom advantages are paramount of importance to encourage the shift from road transport to combined transport. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Franc P.,INRETS |
Van der Horst M.,Technical University of Delft
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2010
In the present competitive environment of ports, the key determinant in port competition is the ability of a port to be integrated into the local maritime and hinterland transportation chain. Creating effective integrated hinterland chains requires the coordination of several actors both in port and the hinterland. By making use of insights from Transaction Cost Economics and Resource-based View, the paper helps to understand why and how shipping lines and terminal operating companies enlarge their scope in intermodal transport and in inland terminals. The paper discusses a number of cases from the Hamburg-Le Havre range, where shipping lines and terminal operating companies have changed their scope of activities in ports and hinterland networks. After the theoretical and empirical analysis the papers draws conclusions on the explanatory power of the theories in understanding hinterland service integration by shipping lines and terminal operators. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Dommes A.,INRETS |
Ophthalmic and Physiological Optics | Year: 2011
Purpose: The present experiment investigated the role of perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities in street-crossing behaviour with ageing. Previous research has shown that older pedestrians make many unsafe crossing decisions when cars are approaching at high speeds, and miss many crossing opportunities when car speeds are low. The older subjects seem to ignore information about the speed of the approaching cars and to preferentially use simplifying heuristics based on vehicle distance. The objective of the present study was to better understand the underlying age-related changes that lead to these behaviours, with a specific focus on perceptual factors. Method: Twenty young (age 20-30), 21 younger-old (age 61-71), and 19 older-old (age 72-83) participants took part in the experiment. All participants individually carried out a simulated street-crossing task and took a battery of functional tests assessing perceptual, cognitive, and motor abilities. Results: In line with earlier findings, the seniors made a greater number of incorrect crossing decisions, with many risky decisions when the vehicle was approaching at a high speed and many missed opportunities at a low speed. Correlation and regression analyses pointed out several functional performance measures as predictors of the way the pedestrians took or did not take information about vehicle speed into account in their decisions. Processing speed and visual attention abilities were shown to play the most important role in explaining the variance in incorrect decisions: these abilities allowed participants to focus their attention on the relevant speed information and to make timely, correct decisions. Time-to-arrival estimates, which informed the pedestrians about the time available for crossing, were found to be the second most predictive factor. Walking speed, by way of which the pedestrians adapted their crossing pace to the perceived available time, also came into play. Inhibition abilities ended up as the last functional predictor; they allowed the pedestrians to ignore irrelevant information and inhibit automatic but unsuitable responses. Conclusions: The present study provided a multidimensional explanation of increased gap-selection difficulties with ageing, including a combination of perceptual, cognitive, as well as physical performance declines with increasing age. The findings have implications for improving older pedestrians' safety in terms of speed limits, road design, and training. © 2011 The College of Optometrists.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-CA | Phase: SST-2007-3.1-01 | Award Amount: 797.42K | Year: 2008
The main aim of proposing the ACCESS 2 ALL coordination action is to encourage Public Transport operators belonging to the project target group to adopt innovative technological concepts and mobility schemes that enable high quality mobility and transportation services for all, as well as to provide their personnel with the necessary knowledge on the particularities of specific user groups, such as the elderly and disabled, ICT-illiterate, dyslexic and illiterate people, etc. ACCESS 2 ALL aims at defining concrete mobility schemes, guidelines and policy recommendations, ensuring accessibility of Public Transport to ALL users, through the coordination of current research efforts, the production of common research roadmaps, the identification of best practice models and the appropriate use of ICT aids and networks. The achievement of all above stated objectives will be measured and verified through well specified milestones and specific success assessment criteria.
Électricité de France, University of Franche Comte and Inrets | Date: 2010-06-24
A method for detecting defects in an electrochemical device, including obtaining at least one characteristic value dependent on at least one variable received from the electrochemical device and determining at least one defect in said device from the characteristic value obtained. The method comprises a mathematical operation including a wavelet transform, which operation is carried out in order to obtain the characteristic value from the variable received. The invention also relates to a device that carries out one such method, as well as to a corresponding computer program.