Joumard R.,INRETS |
Nicolas J.-P.,Laboratoire DEconomie des Transports
Ecological Indicators | Year: 2010
Faced with a choice of different transport projects, such as road or rail infrastructure projects, which project is the most sustainable? We suggest a relatively simple and transparent evaluation method for such projects. First, transport issues within the sustainable development framework must be addressed, bearing in mind the strong meaning of the term, which is the only concept allowing environmental issues to be taken seriously into account. It also means linking local and global aspects, long and short terms, and thus to specify the time and geographical scales of projects and their impacts. Secondly, we put forward these main principles as evaluation criteria enabling the sustainable development concept to be made operational. We suggest three economic criteria, four social criteria and eleven environmental criteria, in addition to an aggregation method for these criteria integrating the social or political preferences of decision-makers or their representatives. A concern that is often significant in transport projects is the future of traffic mobility, whose main parameters we have analysed in order to put forward probable scenarios, which form the basis for applying the criteria listed above. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Acta Acustica united with Acustica | Year: 2011
This paper presents the results of an applied optimization model of aircraft noise abatement for departures, leading to a reduction of noise levels around airports. Performance of the optimal takeoff flight path has been studied and its comparison to standard procedures has been carried out. The obtained results are relevant and appear to be compatible with today's Air Traffic Control principles. © S. Hirzel Verlag.
Franc P.,INRETS |
Van der Horst M.,Technical University of Delft
Journal of Transport Geography | Year: 2010
In the present competitive environment of ports, the key determinant in port competition is the ability of a port to be integrated into the local maritime and hinterland transportation chain. Creating effective integrated hinterland chains requires the coordination of several actors both in port and the hinterland. By making use of insights from Transaction Cost Economics and Resource-based View, the paper helps to understand why and how shipping lines and terminal operating companies enlarge their scope in intermodal transport and in inland terminals. The paper discusses a number of cases from the Hamburg-Le Havre range, where shipping lines and terminal operating companies have changed their scope of activities in ports and hinterland networks. After the theoretical and empirical analysis the papers draws conclusions on the explanatory power of the theories in understanding hinterland service integration by shipping lines and terminal operators. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Marino R.,University of Rome Tor Vergata |
Scalzi S.,University of Rome Tor Vergata |
Control Engineering Practice | Year: 2011
In this paper a nested PID steering control in vision based autonomous vehicles is designed and experimentally tested to perform path following in the case of roads with an uncertain curvature. The control input is the steering wheel angle: it is designed on the basis of the yaw rate, measured by a gyroscope, and the lateral offset, measured by the vision system as the distance between the road centerline and a virtual point at a fixed distance from the vehicle. No lateral acceleration and no lateral speed measurements are required. A PI active front steering control based on the yaw rate tracking error is used to improve the vehicle steering dynamics. The yaw rate reference is computed by an external control loop which is designed using a PID control with a double integral action based on the lateral offset to reject the disturbances on the curvature which increase linearly with respect to time. The proposed control scheme leads to a nested architecture with two independent control loops that allows us to design standard PID controls in a multivariable context (two outputs, one input). The robustness of the controlled system is theoretically investigated with respect to speed variations and uncertain vehicle physical parameters. Several simulations are carried out on a standard big sedan CarSim vehicle model to explore the robustness with respect to unmodelled effects. The simulations show reduced lateral offset and new stable μ-split braking maneuvres in comparison with the model predictive steering controller implemented by CarSim. Finally the proposed control law is successfully tested by experiments using a Peugeot 307 prototype vehicle on the test track in Satory, 20. km west of Paris. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.
Électricité de France, University of Franche Comte and Inrets | Date: 2010-06-24
A method for detecting defects in an electrochemical device, including obtaining at least one characteristic value dependent on at least one variable received from the electrochemical device and determining at least one defect in said device from the characteristic value obtained. The method comprises a mathematical operation including a wavelet transform, which operation is carried out in order to obtain the characteristic value from the variable received. The invention also relates to a device that carries out one such method, as well as to a corresponding computer program.