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Spazzafumo L.,Biostatistical Center | Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri F.,Inrca National Institute | Abbatecola A.M.,Scientific Direction | And 15 more authors.
Age | Year: 2013

Factor structure analyses have revealed the presence of specific biological system markers in healthy humans and diseases. However, this type of approach in very old persons and in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is lacking. A total sample of 2,137 Italians consisted of two groups: 1,604 healthy and 533 with T2DM. Age (years) was categorized as adults (≤65), old (66-85), oldest old (>85-98) and centenarians (≥99). Specific biomarkers of routine haematological and biochemical testing were tested across each age group. Exploratory factorial analysis (EFA) by principal component method with Varimax rotation was used to identify factors including related variables. Structural equation modelling (SEM) was applied to confirm factor solutions for each age group. EFA and SEM identified specific factor structures according to age in both groups. An age-associated reduction of factor structure was observed from adults to oldest old in the healthy group (explained variance 60.4% vs 50.3%) and from adults to old in the T2DM group (explained variance 57.4% vs 44.2%). Centenarians showed three-factor structure similar to those of adults (explained variance 58.4%). The inflammatory component became the major factor in old group and was the first one in T2DM. SEM analysis in healthy subjects suggested that the glucose levels had an important role in the oldest old. Factorial structure change during healthy ageing was associated with a decrease in complexity but showed an increase in variability and inflammation. Structural relationship changes observed in healthy subjects appeared earlier in diabetic patients and later in centenarians. © 2011 American Aging Association.

D'Alessandra Y.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino | Carena M.C.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino | Spazzafumo L.,Inrca National Institute | Martinelli F.,Centro Cardiologico Monzino | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Purpose: We examined circulating miRNA expression profiles in plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) vs. matched controls, with the aim of identifying novel discriminating biomarkers of Stable (SA) and Unstable (UA) angina. Methods: An exploratory analysis of plasmatic expression profile of 367 miRNAs was conducted in a group of SA and UA patients and control donors, using TaqMan microRNA Arrays. Screening confirmation and expression analysis were performed by qRT-PCR: all miRNAs found dysregulated were examined in the plasma of troponinnegative UA (n=19) and SA (n=34) patients and control subjects (n=20), matched for sex, age, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the expression of 14 known CAD-associated miRNAs was also investigated. Results: Out of 178 miRNAs consistently detected in plasma samples, 3 showed positive modulation by CAD when compared to controls: miR-337-5p, miR-433, and miR-485-3p. Further, miR-1, -122, -126, -133a, -133b, and miR-199a were positively modulated in both UA and SA patients, while miR-337-5p and miR-145 showed a positive modulation only in SA or UA patients, respectively. ROC curve analyses showed a good diagnostic potential (AUC ≥ 0.85) for miR-1, -126, and -483-5p in SA and for miR-1, -126, and -133a in UA patients vs. controls, respectively. No discriminating AUC values were observed comparing SA vs. UA patients. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the combination of miR-1, -133a, and -126 in UA and of miR-1, -126, and -485-3p in SA correctly classified patients vs. controls with an efficiency ≥ 87%. No combination of miRNAs was able to reliably discriminate patients with UA from patients with SA. Conclusions: This work showed that specific plasmatic miRNA signatures have the potential to accurately discriminate patients with angiographically documented CAD from matched controls. We failed to identify a plasmatic miRNA expression pattern capable to differentiate SA from UA patients. © 2013 D'Alessandra et al.

Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri F.,INRCA National Institute | Lazzarini R.,Marche Polytechnic University | Babini L.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 16 more authors.
Free Radical Biology and Medicine | Year: 2013

Clinical evidence demonstrates that ubiquinol-10, the reduced active form of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10H2), improves endothelial function through its antioxidant and probably its anti-inflammatory properties. We previously reported that a biomarker combination including miR-146a, its target protein IL-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK-1), and released interleukin (IL)-6, here collectively designated as MIRAKIL, indicates senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) acquisition by primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We explore the ability of short- and long-term CoQ10H2 supplementation to affect MIRAKIL in HUVECs, used as a model of vascular aging, during replicative senescence in the absence/ presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a proinflammatory stimulus. Senescent HUVECs had the same ability as young cells to internalize CoQ10 and exhibit an improved oxidative status. LPS-induced NF-κB activation diminished after CoQ10H2 pretreatment in both young and senescent cells. However, short-term CoQ10H 2 supplementation attenuated LPS-induced MIRAKIL changes in young cells; in senescent cells CoQ10H2 supplementation significantly attenuated LPS-induced miR-146a and IRAK-1 modulation but failed to curb IL-6 release. Similar results were obtained with long-term CoQ10H2 incubation. These findings provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms by which CoQ10H2 stems endothelial cell inflammatory responses and delays SASP acquisition. These phenomena may play a role in preventing the endothelial dysfunction associated with major age-related diseases. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri F.,Inrca National Institute | Rippo M.R.,Marche Polytechnic University | Monsurro V.,University of Verona | And 5 more authors.
Ageing Research Reviews | Year: 2013

Epidemiological and experimental data demonstrate a strong correlation between age-related chronic inflammation (inflamm-aging) and cancer development. However, a comprehensive approach is needed to clarify the underlying molecular mechanisms. Chronic inflammation has mainly been attributed to continuous immune cells activation, but the cellular senescence process, which may involve acquisition of a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), can be another important contributor, especially in the elderly. MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of molecules involved in gene expression regulation, are emerging as modulators of some pathways, including NF-κB, mTOR, sirtuins, TGF-β and Wnt, that may be related to inflammation, cellular senescence and age-related diseases, cancer included. Interestingly, cancer development is largely avoided or delayed in centenarians, where changes in some miRs are found in plasma and leukocytes. We identified miRs that can be considered as senescence-associated (. SA-miRs), inflammation-associated (. inflamma-miRs) and cancer-associated (. onco-miRs). Here we review recent findings concerning three of them, miR-21, -126 and -146a, which target mRNAs belonging to the NF-κB pathway; we discuss their ability to link cellular senescence, inflamm-aging and cancer and their changes in centenarians, and provide an update on the possibility of using miRs to block accumulation of senescent cells to prevent formation of a microenvironment favoring cancer development and progression. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri F.,Inrca National Institute | Mazzanti I.,Inrca Hospital | Abbatecola A.M.,Inrca National Institute | And 5 more authors.
Current Vascular Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Statins are well established drugs for primary and secondary prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Despite the well-known ability of statins to lower cholesterol, it is now clear that clinical benefits are also substantially higher than expected and several clinical trials, like JUPITER (Justification for the Use of Statins in Primary Prevention: An Intervention Trial Evaluating Rosuvastatin trial) have indicated that such clinical effects are independent of cholesterol reduction. These cholesterol-independent actions have been named "pleiotropic effects" and include: anti-oxidation and anti-inflammatory effects, modulation of immune activation, stabilization of atherosclerotic plaque, decreased platelet activation, inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy, reduction of cytokine-mediated vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation and improvement of endothelial function. Recently, additional pleiotropic effects of statins on "cellular senescence" have been seen in different cell types, including endothelial progenitor cells (EPC), endothelial cells (EC), VSMC and chondrocytes. At the molecular level, the effect of statins on cellular senescence could be mediated by their interaction with the telomere/telomerase system. Recent evidence suggests that the anti-aging effects of statins are linked to their ability to inhibit telomere shortening by reducing either directly and indirectly oxidative telomeric DNA damage, as well as by a telomere capping proteins dependent mechanism. In this review, we discuss the pleiotropic effects of statins, focusing on the telomere/telomerase system. We will also present our current findings regarding leukocyte telomere length in very old people with myocardial infarction on statin therapy. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.

Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri F.,Inrca National Institute | Rippo M.R.,Marche Polytechnic University | Procopio A.D.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Genetics | Year: 2013

Evidence on circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) is indisputably opening a new era in systemic and tissue-specific biomarker research, highlighting new inter-cellular and inter-organ communication mechanisms. Circulating miRNAs might be active messengers eliciting a systemic response as well as non-specific "by-products" of cell activity and even of cell death; in either case they have the potential to be clinically relevant biomarkers for a number of physiopathological processes, including inflammatory responses and inflammation-related conditions. A large amount of evidence indicates that miRNAs can exert two opposite roles, activating as well as inhibiting inflammatory pathways. The inhibitory action probably relates to the need for activating anti-inflammatory mechanisms to counter potent proinflammatory signals, like the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) pathway, to prevent cell and tissue destruction. MiRNA-based anti-inflammatory mechanisms may acquire a crucial role during aging, where a chronic, low-level proinflammatory status is likely sustained by the cell senescence secretome and by progressive activation of immune cells over time. This process entails age-related changes, especially in extremely old age, in those circulating miRNAs that are capable of modulating the inflammatory status (inflamma-miRs). Interestingly, a number of such circulating miRNAs seem to be promising biomarkers for the major age-related diseases that share a common chronic, low-level proinflammatory status, such as cardiovascular disease (CVD), type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), Alzheimer Disease (AD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and cancers. © 2013 Olivieri, Rippo, Procopio and Fazioli.

Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri F.,Inrca National Institute | Rippo M.R.,Marche Polytechnic University | Prattichizzo F.,Marche Polytechnic University | And 5 more authors.
Immunity and Ageing | Year: 2013

The age-related changes of immune system functions are complex phenomena incompletely understood. The acquired immune system shows a functional decline in ability to respond to new pathogens during aging, whereas serum levels of inflammatory cytokines are increased with age. The source of this age-related systemic chronic inflammation, named inflammaging, was mainly attributed to the progressive activation of immune cells over time. However, recent studies have shown that the process of cellular senescence can be an important additional contributor to chronic inflammation, since senescent cells acquire a phenotype named "senescence-associated secretory phenotype" (SASP), characterized by the enhanced secretion of many inflammation modulators. Pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors, in particular Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are key molecules in the response of innate immunity cells to pathological stimuli. An intriguing and innovative hypothesis is that the dysfunction of TLRs signaling and the acquisition of SASP can be two interconnected phenomena. The TLR family, including receptors and co-effector molecules, do not show a consistent age-dependent change across model systems. However, there is evidence for impaired downstream signaling events, including inhibition of positive and activation of negative modulators of TLR signaling. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a newly discovered class of gene regulators acting as post-transcriptional repressors of a number of genes. The miRNA property to finely-tune gene expression makes them right for immune system regulation, which requires precise control for proper activity. We reviewed evidences suggesting that miRNAs can modulate TLR signaling mainly by three different mechanisms: 1) miRNAs can directly target components of the TLR signaling system, 2) miRNA expression can be directly regulated by TLRs pathway activation and 3) miRNAs can directly activate the RNA-sensing TLRs, like TLR-8, in humans. We also reviewed how TLR signaling is modulated by miRNAs during aging, and how an impaired miRNAs/TLR signaling interaction in immune system cells and related cells, i.e. endothelial cells and adipocytes, can contribute to inflammaging observed in normal aging. Interestingly, this impairment appears accelerated in presence of the majors age-related diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases and cancers. © 2013 Olivieri et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bacalini M.G.,University of Bologna | Friso S.,University of Verona | Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri F.,Inrca National Institute | And 6 more authors.
Mechanisms of Ageing and Development | Year: 2014

The rapid technological advancements achieved in the last years have boosted the progressive identification of age-associated epigenetic changes. These studies not only contribute to shed light on the molecular basis of ageing and age-related diseases but, given the plasticity of epigenetic modifications, also provide the basis for anti-ageing interventions to counteract the onset of age-related diseases. In this review we will discuss nutritional interventions as a promising approach that can positively counteract epigenetic changes associated with ageing and promote the health for the elderly. First, we will give an overview of age-associated epigenetic signatures, focusing on DNA methylation. Then, we will report recent evidences regarding the epigenetic changes induced by nutritional interventions in the adulthood (referred as "epigenetic diets"), such as (i) caloric/dietary restriction, (ii) diet supplementation with nutrients involved in one-carbon metabolism and (iii) diet supplementation with bioactive food components. Attention will be drawn on the limits of current studies and the need of proper human models, such as those provided by the ongoing European project NU-AGE. Finally, we will discuss the potential impact of epigenetic diets on inflammaging and age-related diseases, focusing on cardiovascular disease, highlighting the involvement of epigenetic modifications other than DNA methylation, such as microRNA. © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

Olivieri F.,Marche Polytechnic University | Olivieri F.,Inrca National Institute | Antonicelli R.,Inrca National Institute | Recchioni R.,Inrca National Institute | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Cardiology | Year: 2013

Background: The functional characteristics of circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) are impaired in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients, suggesting that CAC dysfunction could contribute to CHF pathogenesis. However, the underlying mechanisms are only partly unraveled. No data are currently available regarding telomere/telomerase system in CACs of CHF patients. Methods: CACs were obtained from 80 subjects: 40 healthy control subjects (CTR) [median age (IQR), 80 (76-85 yrs)] and 40 patients affected by post-ischemic cardiomyopathy CHF [median age (IQR), 82 (77-89)]. CAC and leukocyte telomere length, assessed as T/S ratio, and telomerase (TERT) activity were determined in all the enrolled subjects. Specificity and sensitivity of CAC and leukocyte T/S in discriminating between CHF and CTR were evaluated using Receiver Operator Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and reported as AUC values. CD34+/VEGFR2+ number and pro-inflammatory cytokines plasma levels, such as IL-6 and TNF-α, were also measured. Results: CAC T/S and TERT activity were significantly reduced in CHF patients compared to CTR subjects. In leukocytes, only a significant T/S reduction was observed. AUC values were higher for CAC T/S with respect to leukocyte T/S (AUC = 0.89, and AUC = 0.73, P < 0.01, respectively). In multivariate analysis, leukocyte T/S, CAC T/S, CAC TERT activity and NT-proBNP levels were confirmed as parameters significantly associated with CHF. CD34+/VEGFR2+ number, IL-6 and TNF-α plasma levels were significantly increased in CHF patients. Conclusions: CACs from CHF patients are characterized by telomere/telomerase system impairment, providing new insight into the clinical relevance of CACs in CHF pathogenesis. © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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